Articles 60
  • The Preliminary Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions and Attitudes on the Future English Education Using AI Technology..
    By. Daeun Han
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate preliminary elementary school teachers’ perceptions and attitudes about the upcoming future English education, namely the fourth industrial revolution era. Method: For the research, 91 preliminary elementary school teachers were surveyed. As for a questionnaire form, this study defines preliminary elementary school teachers’ attitudes in the following categories; 1)interests in English education using AI technology, 2)innovation resistance and anxiety about English education using AI technology. Results: The results of the survey data were as follows. First of all, the preliminary elementary school teachers’ interest in the impact of AI technology on English education was high, but their interest remain at the ‘personal’(1-2 stages) level. Second, the level of the preliminary elementary school teachers’ innovation resistance was not high, but the anxiety level was above average. They showed willingness to take AI technologies as instructional tools and positive attitudes toward AI technology-embedded future classroom. On the one hand, they were anxious about a lack of knowledge about new teaching method and skills related with utilizing AI technology into their classroom. Conclusion: The curriculum should be the tailored curriculum to meet their level and needs, which was required in the fourth industrial revolution through the use of AI technologies. It is to show the possibility of using AI technology to learn English so that we can maintain the current positive perception of the English education using AI that the preliminary school teacher showed. Also, in order to be open to any paradigm changes related to English education in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, concerns and proposals for a new method of English education should be actively discussed. Finally, the university of education, which is a teacher training institution, need to introduce to preliminary elementary school teachers what AI technologies can be combined with English education and what are their characteristics, and to guide how AI technology is being applied to English education [Keywords] Preliminary Elementary School Teacher, Artificial Intelligence(AI), Technology, Future English Education, Fourth Industrial Revolution References [1] Kang YD. A Design on Teaching and Learning Method for Creative Talent in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 5(1), 1-9 (2020). [Article] [2] Kang YD. English Teaching Method Using Flipped Learning in the Artificial Intelligence Era. Robotics & AI Ethics, 4(2), 14-21 (2019). [Article] [3] Kim HS & Kim HY. A Study of Korean English Teachers’ Future Readiness for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Multimedia-assisted Language Learning, 20(3), 179-205 (2017). [4] Cho SS. The 4th Industrial Revolution’ and Future Education. Media & Education, 6(2), 152-185 (2016). [5] Baek MJ. The Study on the Criminal Subject and Liability of AI Robots. International Journal of Justice & Law, 2(2), 15-21 (2017). [Article] [8] Kim YS. Elementary School Teachers’ and Teacher Educators’ Ideas of English Education in the 4th Industrial Society. The Journal of Education, 37(3), 123-150 (2017). [12] Park SJ & Ihm HJ. Elementary English Teachers’ Perception toward Future of English Education. The Journal of Education, 39(4), 123-144 (2019). [13] Roach AT & Kratochwill TR & Frank JL. School-based Consultants as Change Facilitators: Adapta-tion for the Concerns-based Adoption Model(CBAM) to Support the Implementation of Research-based Practices. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 19, 300-320 (2009). [14] Horsley DL & Loucks-Horsley S. CBAM Brings Order to the Tornado of Change. Journal of Staff Development, 19(4), 17-20 (1998). [16] Kim HY. Teachers as a Barrier to Technology-integrated Language Teaching. English Teaching, 57(2), 35-64 (2002). [17] Ram S. A Model of Innovation Resistance. Advances in Consumer Research, 14, 208-212 (1987). [18] Park JH. Validation of a Model to Measure Teacher's Resistance to Change. Andragogy Today: International Journal of Adult & Continuing Education, 14(3), 1-31 (2011). [20] Horwitz EK & Horwitz MB & Cope J. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132 (1986). [11] Han DE. Effects of AI Chatbot on Korean EFL Learners’ Speaking Ability and Affective Factors. Chonnam National University, Doctoral Thesis (2020). [6] Choi YS. Futurist’s Artificial Intelligence Scenario. (2016). [7] Matsuo Y. Do Artificial Intelligences Outreach Human? Thinking of Deep Learning. Dongamnb (2015). [15] Hall GE & Hord SM. Implementing Change: Patterns, Principles, and Potholes. Allyn and Bacon (2006). [19] Hativa N. Technology and the Classroom Teacher. In Anderson LW International Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher Education Pergamon (1995). [9] Park JH & Yoon SR. Comparative Analysis of Word/Subword/Character Level Korean-English Neural Machine Translation. Proceedings of Symposium of the Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences (2016). [10] (2017). ?Source:
  • Directions for the Korean Social INTEGRATION Policy Index Development
    By. Yang Luo, Eunsook Seo
    Abstract Purpose: As South Korea enters a multicultural society, the importance of a reasonable and effective social integration policy system has been emphasized. The evaluation of social integration policies can promote policy improvement and improve policy effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the limitations of the application of MIPEX in the evaluation of the Korean social integration policy and to give suggestions about the developing direction of South Korea's social integration policy index. Method: This study starts with the MIPEX’s analysis of South Korea to understands the advantages and disadvantages of Korean immigrant social integration policy. On the other hand, there are certain limits in MIPEX’s evaluation and practical application in South Korea, so by observation and analysis of MIPEX and comparison of integration policies of South Korea and other countries, suggestions are made for the development of a social integration policy index that meets the conditions of South Korea. Results: Although South Korea’s immigrant social integration policy is in a leading position in Asia especially in multicultural education area but compared to the Top countries in MIPEX, some improvement still need to be made. It was showing a trend of regression with increased difficulty in obtaining permanent residency. MIPEX's completely Europe-centered evaluation standards, ignoring illegal immigrants and only focusing on legal immigrants, and ignoring the actual implementation of policies are all reasons for its limitations of application in South Korea. Conclusion: It is necessary to consider the conditions of South Korea and formulate policy indicators that conform to the society during the development of the Korean social integration policy index. The targets of the social integration policy should include all immigrants, and the actual implementation of the policy should be reflected in the evaluation. According to the specific conditions of the country, citizen participation, gender equality, and social security are policy elements that can be added to the index. [Keywords] MIPEX, Social Integration Policy, Multicultural Society, Multicultural Education, Anti-Discrimination References [2] Lee J & Liang D. Suggestions for Using AI in Preparation for a Super-aging Society. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 57-64 (2020). [Article] [3] Lee SL. Labor Force Shortage Projection and Policy Implications: Impact of Demographic Transition in Korea. Korea Journal of Population Studies, 35(2), 1-28 (2019). [4] Seol DH. Population Ageing and International Migration Policy in South Korea. Economy and Society, 106(1), 73-114 (2015). [6] Kurthen H & Heisler BS. Immigrant Integration: Comparative Evidence from the United States and Germany. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 32(1), 139-170 (2009). [7] Givens TE. Immigrant Integration in Europe: Empirical Research. Annual Review of Political Science, 10(1), 67-83 (2007). [9] Hellgren Z. Immigrant Integration as a Two-way Process: Translating Theory into Practice. GRITim Working Paper, 23, 1-30 (2015). [12] Molodikova IN & Lyalina AV & Emelyanova LL. Contacts with Diasporas and Diaspora Organisations as a Key to a Successful Migrant Integration Policy in the EU. Baltic Re-gion, 10(3), 58-79 (2018). [13] Gray B. Migrant Integration Policy: A Nationalist Fantasy of Management and Control. Translocations: The Irish Migration, Race and Social Transformation Review, 13(1), 121-141 (2006). [14] Keizo Y. The Challenges for Japanese Immigrant Integration Policy. Around the Globe, 4(2), 41-44 (2008). [15] Kondo A. Migrant Integration Policy in Japan. Meijo Law Review, 61(1), 3-30 (2011). [18] Lim HB. A Study on the Difference Between Korean and Western Multicultural Societies and Comparison. The Journal of Multicultural Society, 2(1), 161-185 (2009). [20] Shen S. The Bibimbap Migration Theory? Challenges of Korea’s Multicultural Mix and Social Integration Development. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 18(3), 771-789 (2017). [21] Lee SS. The Status and Problem of Social Integration Policy for Immigrants in Korea: Focusing on the Social Integration Program Managing. Journal of Social Science, 21(4), 165-187 (2010). [22] Jang A & Kang SB. Civic and Political Engagement of Korean Chinese(Joseonjok) in Korea: Case of Activists. Korea Observer, 48(2), 325-359 (2017). [25] Putnam RD. Tuning in, Tuning out: The Strange Disappearance of Social Capital in America. Political Science & Politics, 28(4), 664-683 (1995). [26] Aleksynska M. Civic Participation of Immigrants in Europe: Assimilation, Origin, and Destination Country Effects. European Journal of Political Economy, 27(3), 566-585 (2011). [29] Kwon HS. Research on Difficulties of Female Marriage Immigrants in Korean Societies and Relevant Countermeasures. International Journal of Police and Policing, 3(2), 1-5 (2018). [Article] [30] Sabates-Wheeler R & Koettl J. Social Protection for Migrants: The Challenges of Delivery in the Context of Changing Migration Flows. International Social Security Review, 63(3‐4), 115-144 (2010). [31] Seol DH. The Citizenship of Foreign Workers in South Korea. Citizenship Studies, 16(1), 119-133 (2012). [5] Bijl RV & Zorlu A & Jennissen RP & Blom M. International Migration in Europe. Amsterdam Uni-versity (2008). [10] Wanner P. Migration et Integration. Office Federal de la Statistiqu (2004). [11] Koopmans R. Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe. Minnesota (2005). [23] Putnam RD. Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital. Palgrave Macmillan (2000). [24] Rossteutscher S. Social Capital and Civic Engagement: A Comparative Perspective. Oxford Uni-versity (2008). [28] Brinton M. Women’s Working Lives in East Asia. Stanford University (2001). [1] (2021). [8] (2021). [16] [17] [19] (2004). [27] (2020). [32] (2020). ?Source:
  • Development of Program Model for Improving Intrapersonal Intelligence Based on FLIPPEDLEARNING
    By. Joengbin Choi
    Abstract Purpose: Intrapersonal Intelligence is a fundamentally required competence for a human to do its part in a social environment and lead a life without regret. This Intrapersonal Intelligence is essential intelligence for all human beings, regardless of age. However, the recent fandom situation has weakened many people's mental strength due to increased emotional anxiety and depression. The variable "pandemic" had a great influence not only on one individual but also on society as a whole. The prolonged 'COVID-19' situation around the world has left modern people increasingly impoverished. Therefore, the time has come for Intrapersonal Intelligence more than ever. Therefore, this study developed a program model for the purpose of improving Intrapersonal intelligence. Method: The educational model developed for the purpose of enhancing Intrapersonal intelligence was analyzed by literature based on previous studies to derive program components. In addition, for the convenience of learners in the digital age, it is designed based on Flipped Learning, which enables continuous learning and has high timeliness. In order to improve the completeness of the program, a procedure for verifying reliability and validity was carried out by review of seven doctors in educational engineering and instructional design experts. Results: The main factors that constitute the contents of the Intrapersonal intelligence improvement program consisted of 'self-understanding, self-regulation, and self-design'. The detailed elements for each factor are 'understanding self-emotional and comprehension of ability', 'future design and achievement motivation', and 'mutual regulation and impulse control'. In addition, the Intrapersonal intelligence improvement program based on Flipped Learning was designed to fully understand the prerequisite learning materials through the pre-learning materials and to conduct discussion and coaching at the same time in the in-class. Conclusion: This study follows the same context as prior research that demonstrates that existing Intrapersonal intelligence can be improved through learning. However, this study utilizes open educational resources as a medium for prior learning in a methodical approach to teaching and learning, and in-class mainly uses coaching and discussion, which are non-directive teaching methods. As a result, I hope that through the Intrapersonal intelligence improvement program, modern people can recognize themselves right away, control their emotions, design a positive future, and lead a happy life. [Keywords] Intrapersonal Intelligence, Flipped Learning, NLP Coaching, Program Design, Instruction Model References [1] Choi SO. New Normal Corona Crisis Management Governance. Journal of Governance Studies, 15(3), 1-26 (2002). [2] Kim DW. Government Roles in Policy Networks against Covid-19: Comparing Two Cases in S. Korea. Protection Convergence, 5(2), 14-26 (2020). [Article] [3] Cho HJ & Park SJ & Im YS. Human Security Task and Prospect on Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 5(2), 48-55 (2002). [Article] [4] Park GY & Kim HS & Li Y. Virtue for Post Covid-19 and AI Technology. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 8-18 (2020). [Article] [6] Choi JB. Instructor Competency for Innovative Teaching Methods in the Untact Era. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 50-56 (2020). [Article] [7] Lim YJ. Implications of Emotional Coaching and Integrated Art Therapy Teaching Method on Leadership Education in the AI Era. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 42-49 (2020). [Article] [14] Jeong JJ. A Study on the Measurement of Multiple Intelligence. Journal of Elementary Education, 17(1), 161-198 (2001). [15] Anthony & Frankli. The Self-reflection and Insight Scale: A New Measure of Private Self-consciousness. Social Behavior and Personality An International Journal, 30(8), 821-835 (2002). [20] Choi JB & Kim EK. Developing a Teaching-learning Model for Flipped Learning for Institutes of Technology and a Case of Operation of a Subject. Journal of Engineering Education Research, 18(2), 77-88 (2014). [21] Lawshe CH. A Quantitative Approach to Content Validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575 (1975). [10] Kim MG. A Study of A Teaching Method for the Integrated Art Appreciation Drawing on Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence. Hanyang University, Master's Thesis (2003). [11] Kim JH. A Study on the Development of a Career Education Program Based on Multiple Intelli-gences Theory. Seoul National University, Doctoral Thesis (2005). [17] Kwon OJ. The Development of Intrapersonal Intelligence Assessment Scale and Enhancement Program for Elementary Students. Chungnam National University, Doctoral Thesis (2008). [18] Baek JN. Validation of Multiple Intelligence Measurement Questions for Students with Devel-opmental Disabilities. Kongju National University, Doctoral Thesis (2011). [5] Gardner H. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence. Basic Books (1983). [8] Gardner H. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. Basic Books (1993). [9] Gardner H. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. Basic Books (1999). [12] Moon YR. Intellectual Revolution. Business Books (2004). [13] Kim YB. Multi-intelligence Development Scale. Korean Educational Development Institute (2000). [19] Kelly L. Challenging Minds: Thinking Skills and Enrichment Activities. Zephyr (1995). [16] Shearer & C. Branton. Using a Multiple Intelligences Assessment To Facilitate Teacher Develop-ment. Institute of Education Sciences (2002). ?Source:
  • Consideration of the Necessity of Coaching the Korean MILITARY in the Pendemic Era
    By. Sundong Youn
    Abstract Purpose: It is the era of talking about post-corona beyond the corona era. Corona is having a rapid impact on society as a whole. Many scholars predict that the pandemic will not stop as a single event, but will become daily life with a different name. With the rapid development of various media such as working from home and social media, it has become an era that requires more individual initiative. Coaching can be the most needed skill in this pandemic era. Social interest in coaching is also increasing. The pandemic is further increasing the need for coaching. In this paper, we look at the research trend of coaching in the times, and especially suggest implications for coaching research methods in the military. Method: In order to understand the research trends in the field of coaching, this study searched for doctoral dissertations on the RISS site of the Korea Education and Research Information Service. As a result, papers from 1992 to January 2021 were searched. The reason for the study of the doctoral dissertation is that it was judged that targeting the research results of researchers who entered the academic field as official experts provides data on stable re-search trends. First, 489 doctoral dissertations were searched, and through content analysis, doctoral dissertations with “coaching” were selected and compressed into a total of 210. The 210 papers were categorized through content analysis. Trend analysis through content analysis has the advantage of being able to implicitly show the research trend of a specific discipline. Afterwards, the selected papers were classified by period, research field, and major re-search field, and the trend of research was analyzed. Results: As a result of the analysis, the number of dissertations related to coaching has increased since '10, and exceeded 23 publications in '16. By research area, 53 in the field of education, 53 in the field of education, 40 in the field of sports, 37 in the field of business, 21 in general coaching, 23 in medicine, 18 in religion, 9 in public institutions, and 6 in career management. Was. The main research fields were 63 papers related to the ching program, 41 coaching leadership papers, 9 scale development papers, and 1 leadership coaching paper. In the case of public organizations, the number of papers decreases when compared to other fields, and in particular, military-related research was confirmed in three cases: coaching program development, effectiveness analysis, and coaching competency model development. Conclusion: Coaching requires active research and application in the military as well as the private sector. To this end, future research is necessary to expand the quantitative expansion of military-related coaching, group coaching and group coaching, etc., research in connection with group coaching and organizational culture improvement, and development of a coaching program for all executives. Finally, through the development of a leadership coaching diagnostic tool that reflects the characteristics of each group, we measure the current level of leaders and propose research and development of educational programs. [Keywords] Coaching, Military Coaching, Content Analysis, Meta Analysis, Public Institutions References [2] Kim MY. The Effect of Online Learning Interactivity and the Risk Perception of Covid-19 on Learning Behavioral Intention and Learning persistence: Using UTAUT Theory. Korean Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 29(8), 59-76 (2020). [6] Choi JB. Instructor Competency for Innovative Teaching Methods in the Untact Era. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 50-56 (2020). [Article] [8] Lee HJ & Lee HY. Covid-19 Stress: Is the Level of Covid-19 Stress Same for Everybody?. Korea Lo-gistics Review, 30(4), 75-87 (2020). [9] Shin KC. Direction of Cultural Content Education in the with/Post-covid19 Era. Korea Humanities Content Society, 59, 107-129 (2020). [10] Bono JE & Purvanova RK & Towler AJ & Peterson DB. A Survey of Executive Coaching Practices. Personnel Psychology, 62(2), 361-404 (2009). [15] Lim YJ & Lee MS. Implications of Emotional Coaching and Integrated Art Therapy Teaching Method on Leadership Education in the AI Era. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 42-49 (2020). [Article] [16] Chun YH. A Meta-analysis of Public-private Distinction Research: Sayre`s Proposition Revisited. Korean Journal of Public Administration, 47(2), 61-93 (2009). [19] Lim YJ & Park GY & Bang WS. Stress Management of Korean Military Leaders. International Journal of Military Affairs, 3(2), 1-7 (2018). [Article] [21] Yoon MY. A Study on the Need for Military Coaching. Defense Agency for Spiritual & Mental Force Enhancement, 59, 43-74 (2019). [23] Park SJ & Im YS. A Case Study on the Core Competencies of Military Leadership for Junior Officers. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(1), 1-12 (2020). [Article] [24] Song KJ & Lee JY. The Effect of Military Life Stress and Ego-resilience on Adjustment of Soldiers. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 1(2), 19-27 (2016). [Article] [26] Kang JW & Lee HS. Research Trends in Managerial Coaching Leadership in Korea Using Topic Modeling and Keyword Network Analysis. Andragogy Today: Interdisciplinary Journal of Adult & Continuing Education, 23(4), 181-210 (2020). [27] Joo YC & Park GY. The Coaching Leadership through the Life and Humanity of Leader Yi Sun-shin. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 4(2), 1-14 (2019). [Article] [28] Zarecky A. How Strengths Focused Coaching Can Help Military Personnel in Their Transition to Civvy Street. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 8, 54-66 (2014). [20] Lee YG. A Study on Coaching Leadership Competency Model and Needs Assessment in Military. Chungnam University, Doctoral Thesis (2019). [29] Woo SM. Executive Coaching Competency Model Development and Needs Analysis. Kyunghee University, Doctoral Thesis (2013). [1] Jason S. The Post-corona World. Mediasoop (2020). [5] Kim YS. Uncontact. Publion (2020). [11] Arbinger Institute. Transformational Coaching. Sungkyunkwan University (2019). [12] Park JK & Choi SY. The Coaching Bible. Woongjinwings (2007). [13] Fairley SG & Stout CE. Getting Stared in Personal and Executive Coaching. John Wiley & Sons (2004). [14] Lee SH & Gil YH & Do MH. Introduction to the Science of Coaching. Sinjung (2016). [17] Ko SJ & Park HS & Choi SH. Military Education. Bookkorea (2014). [18] Janowitz M. Hierarchy and Authority in Society. Irw (1979). [22] Choi BS. Military Leadership. Bookkorea (2010). [25] ROK Army Headquarters. Military Leadership Coaching. Army Headquarters (2020). [3] (2020). [4] (2021). [7] Alexander A & Smet A & Mysore M. Reimagining the Postpandemic Workforce. McKinsey Quarterly (2020). ?Source:
  • Strategic Implications of Belt and Road Initiative for the U.S.-ROK ALLIED RELATIONSHIP
    By. Jaewoo Choo, Ikjoong Youn
    Abstract Purpose: The ROK’s diplomatic maneuverability since the normalization of its relationship with the PRC in 1992 has received much undeserved skepticism from both Beijing and Washington. While Beijing acquiescently acknowledges the necessity of Seoul to maintain an alliance with Washington, it has become critical of it since the ROK’s decision to deploy THAAD in 2016. The paper aims at a better understanding of US intent and purposes of engaging with China over the years. To this end, it attempts to reveal the underlying intent of China’s Belt and Road Initiative by introducing its military nature and characters. Method: This paper is basically researched using the traditional literature(English and Chinese) search method. In this paper, quantitative research methodology was not applied due to the distrust of the survey results in China. The interaction of China's Belt and Road Initiative for the U.S.-ROK allied relationship was conducted through a traditional literature search method. In the future, this research topic is expected to be studied in a scientific analysis research method with proven objectivity. Results: To overcome the dilemma that it conceives itself to be in the ROK must consider the following. First of all, the ROK must consider some of the following PRC will not change as long as the CCP remains in power and the Party upholds communism. Secondly, the ROK must expand its concept of the alliance to something beyond military cooperation. Opportunities for cooperation in areas other than security are bountiful. It must now overcome the restrictions it has put on itself and think globally with its ally since it can now afford to do so. Conclusion: It concludes that the best viable way to defend ROK’s national interest is by protecting its values and ideology that it has upheld for the time being. ROK’s the dilemma between the U.S. and PRC will transpire into something unprecedented. It can be assured by the way the fourth industry is transforming that it will no longer be an economic market and security dependence. The strongest recommendation at this particular juncture is to check whether we are willing to defend our values and ideology. [Keywords] Belt and Road Initiative, The US-ROK Alliance, China, Hegemonic Challenge, Indo-Pacific Strategy References [1] Jo SG & Jung YS. Protection Security Organizations of the ROK: A Comparative Study of Presidential Security Service and National Policy Agency. International Journal of Military Affairs, 2(1), 18-23 (2017). [Article] [2] Waldron A. The Warlord: Twentieth-century Chinese Understandings of Violence, Militarism, and Imperialism. The American Historical Review, 96(4), 1073-1100 (1991). [3] Son MS & Jo SG. Response of Korean Private Security against North Korean Cyber Terrorism. In-ternational Journal of Protection, Security & Investigation, 2(2), 11-14 (2017). [Article] [7] Cho HJ & Park GY. North Korea Missile: Past, Present and Future. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 3(1), 1-5 (2018). [Article] [8] 朱锋. 中国的外交斡旋与朝核问题六方会谈 为什么外交解决朝核问题这么难? 外交评论, 4(1), 23-31(2006). [9] 何志工 & 安小平. 朝鮮半島和平協定與和平機制. 東北亞論壇, 17(2), 30-36 (2008). [10] Noh DY. International Legal Review on the Withdrawal of UN Forces and USFK in Terms of Termi-nation of Armistice Regime of the Korean Peninsula. International Journal of Military Affairs, 4(1), 1-4 (2019). [Article] [13] 李福兴. 四方会谈’为何难以取得进展. 国际展望, 17(1), 7-9 (1999). [14] Seo BS. A Study on the National Security Crime in Cyber Space. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 4(1), 15-19 (2019). [Article] [21] Jo SG. The Policies of South Korea's Counter Intelligence Agency on North Korea's Espionage Activities in South Korea. International Journal of Protection, Security & Investigation, 3(2), 30-35 (2018). [Article] [28] Doyle M. Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 12(3), 205-235 (1983). [29] 怀成波. 怎样理解 国家核心利益?. 红旗文稿, 2(1), 38-38 (2011). [31] Gupta R. China’s National Interests: Exploring the Domestic Discourse. Strategic Analysis, 32(5), 804-818 (2012). [36] Jo SG. The United Nation's Response Strategy for North Korea's Denuclearization. International Journal of Military Affairs, 3(2), 20-28 (2018). [Article] [37] 辛田. 中国海外利益保护私营化初探. 国际展望, 4(1), 62-63 (2016). [41] 孔志国. 中国海外利益转型与一带一路战略. 社会科学前沿, 5(1), 144-150 (2016). [43] 刘海泉. 一带一路 战略的安全挑战与中国的选择. 太平洋学报, 23(2), 72-79 (2015). [44] 周士永. 一带一路 背景下的现代边海防建设. 社科纵横, 31(12), 16-18 (2016). [46] 白永秀 & 王颂吉. 丝绸之路的纵深背景与地缘战略. 改革, 3(1), 64-68 (2014). [47] Yu BH. Transnational Security Threat and Change of Counterterrorism Intelligence Environment. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 4(1), 9-14 (2019). [Article] [50] Cho HJ & Park GY. Current US Space Policy and Strategy. International Journal of Military Affairs, 3(1), 7-13 (2018). [Article] [52] 赵青海. 四国同盟: 构想与现实. 国际问题研究, 6(1), 28-32 (2007). [53] Jervis R. The Impact of the Korean War on the Cold War. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 24(4), 563-592 (1980). [54] 崔丕. America Deployed Nuclear Weapons to Okinawa in December 1954, to be Followed by South Korea in 1958. Around the Early 1960s, it Deployed 1,700 Tactical Nuclear Weapons in the Asia-pacific Region. Per the Most Deployed Number of Weapons by Countries and Regions, it is as Follows: 800 in Okinawa, 600 in South Korea, 225 in Guam, 60 in the Philippines, and 12 in Taiwan. In 1967, it Reached its Peak with 3,200 Weapons in the Region. Of Them 1,300 Were Deployed to Okinawa. 美日對中國硏制核武器的認識與對策(1959-1969). 世界歷史, 2(1), 4-20 (2013). [57] Koga K. Japan’s ‘Indo-Pacific’ Question: Countering China or Shaping a New Regional Order? In-ternational Affairs, 96(1), 49-73 (2020). [23] Jervis R. Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton University (1976). [24] Bradley J. The China Mirage: The Hidden History of American Disaster in Asia. Little Brown (2015). [25] Mann J. About Face: A history of America's Curious Relationship with China from Nixon to Clinton. Vintage Books (2000). [26] Friedberg A. A Contest for Supremacy: China, America, and the Struggle for Mastery in Asia. W. W. Norton & Company (2011). [27] Kant I. Perpetual Peace and Other Essays, Translated by Ted Humphrey. Hackett (1992). [34] 习近平. 决胜全面建成小康社会, 夺取新时代中国特色社会主义伟大胜利. 人民出版社 (2017). [35] Woodward B. Fear: Trump in the White House. Simon & Schuster (2018). [38] 中國國防部. 中国武装力量的多样化运用. 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 (2013). [4] (2010). [5] (2010). [6] (2010). [11] (2006). [12] (1971). [15] (2014). [16] (2015). [17] 王毅. 美在韩部署 萨德 系统侵害中国利益. 环球時報 (2015). [18] (2015). [19] (2016). [20] (2016). [22] (2015). [30] (2020). [32] (2020). [33] China Passes a New National Security Law. Raises a Concern for Tighter Social Control. The Hangyeoreo (2015). [39] Duchatel M & Brauner O & Zhou H. Protecting China’s Overseas Interests: The Slow Shift away from Non-interference. Sipri Policy (2014). [40] 刘静. 中国海外利益保护:海外风险类别与保护手段. 中国社会科学出版社 (2016). [42] 习近平接见第五次全国边海防工作会议代表, 李克强张高丽参加. 新华社 (2014). [45] 中國國防部. 中国的军事战略. 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 (2015). [48] (2019). [49] 中国海军护航编队. 11年来护送中外船舶6700余艘次. 解放军报 (2019). [51] (2019). [55] The Department of Defense. Indo-pacific Strategy Report: Preparedness, Partnerships, and Pro-moting a Networked Region. DOD (2019). [56] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Towards Free and Open Indo-pacific: Sailing on the Indo-pacific Ocean: Finding Opportunities for Prosperity (2019). ?Source:
  • A Study on the Development of KMA LEADERSHIP Evaluation System(KMALES)
    By. Sangjung Park, Yooshin Im
    Abstract Purpose: In this study, we confirm the effectiveness of the leadership evaluation index developed as an early stage of this leadership evaluation index development study, and demonstrate the validity of the index by comparing it with the existing leadership evaluation system. Based on these findings, the optimal plan will be developed through continuous research, and through this, the Korea Military Academy's leadership education and evaluation system will be improved and further developed. Method: The leadership activities of cadets were divided into three types of activities: leadership program, self-governing activities, and school/external activities to calculate activity scores based on the time spent on various activities, and finally, leadership evaluation index was calculated. We have gone through many tests to establish an optimal index for each activity. We surveyed tactical officers to get their insights and compared the evaluation results of 230 KMA cadets to identify the relation between the KMALES index and other leadership evaluation tools. Results: The leadership evaluation index was found that the results of the existing evaluation system, Leadership Competency Diagnosis and Leader Behavior and Value Evaluation, were very similar in evaluation of excellent and poor cadets. Therefore, the leadership evaluation index proved valid as a leadership evaluation system for cadets. Conclusion: First, it is the development of a new concept of leadership evaluation system that evaluates the leadership of cadets. Second, it has increased the possibility of using the new leadership evaluation system through verification of its effectiveness and validity. Third, it can be expanded to other educational institutions within the county. [Keywords] Leadership, Leadership Evaluating Index, Leadership Education System, Leader Behavior & Value Evaluation, Cadet References [3] Manz CC. Self-leadership: Toward an Expanded Theory of Self-influence Processes in Organization. Academy of Management Review, 11, 585-600 (1986). [6] Neck CP & Stewart GL & Manz CC. Thought Self-leadership as Framework for Enhancing the Per-formance of Performance Appraisers. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 31, 278-302 (1995). [7] Ross N. Epoch of Transformation: An Interpersonal Leadership Model for the 21st Century-part 1. Integral Leadership Review, 12(1), 1-20 (2012). [8] Sivasubramaniam N & Murry WD & Avolio BJ & Jung DI. A Longitudinal Model of the Effects of Team Leadership and Group Potency on Group Performance. Group & Organization Management, 27(1), 66-96 (2002). [9] Thomas KW & Velthouse BA. Cognitive Element of Empowerment: An Interpretive Model of In-trinsic Task Motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15, 666-681 (1990). [10] Park SJ & Im YS. A Case Study on the Core Competencies of Military Leadership for Junior Officers. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(1), 1-12 (2020). [11] Park JH. New Field Theory Symlog: It’s Theoretical and Practical Aspects. Journal of the Humanities, 12(1), 181-214 (1988). [12] Kim YJ. Analysis of the Subject Response in Symlog Adjective Rating. The Korean Journal of Edu-cational Psychology, 22(1), 317-332 (2008). [13] Bales RF. The New Field Theory in Social Psychology. International Journal of Small Group Research, 1(1), 1-18 (1985). [15] Bang H. Security Issues and Challenges for South Korea 2014: Domestic and Regional. Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 26(1), 1-13 (2014). [16] Kim YJ & Seo CS & Lee CH & Kim JT. A Study on the Leadership Competency Required for Suc-cessful Junior Officers. Korean Journal of Military Art and Science, 65(2), 195-215 (2016). [17] Lim YJ & Park GY & Bang WS. Stress Management of Korean Military Leaders. International Journal of Military Affairs, 3(2), 1-7 (2018). [Article] [18] Lee DG & Park SJ & Im YS. A Study on the Facilitation Factors of Non-commissioned Officer’s Field Leadership: Focused on Delphi and AHP Method. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(2), 43-53 (2020). [Article] [19] Jung BS & Ahn KI. The Effect of Ego-orientation on Military Cadets’ Intention for Sport Activity and Performance. International Journal of Military Affairs, 2(2), 8-14 (2017). [Article] [20] Jung BS. Factors Affecting the Korea Army Soldier’ Perception of Combat Readiness: Multi-level Analysis. International Journal of Military Affairs, 1(1), 8-20 (2016). [Article] [1] Korea Military Academy. Korea Military Academy Brochure. KMA (2020). [2] Ministry of Defense. Defense White Paper. Ministry of Defense (2018). [4] Manz CC & Neck CP. Mastering Self-leadership: Empowering Yourself for Personal Excellence. Prentice-hall (1999). [5] Manz CC & Sims HP Jr. New Superleadership: Leading Others to Lead Themselves. Berrett-koehler (2001). [14] Bales RF & Cohen SP. Symlog: A System for Multiple Level Observation of Groups. The Free (1979). ?Source:
  • The Effect of Self-Management of Juvenile TAEKWONDO Breaking Athletes on Sports Competitive Anxiety
    By. Sunjang Lee, Jongsoo Kim, Jusik Park
    Abstract Purpose: The study was conducted for the purpose of analyzing the effects of self-management on sports competition anxiety for youth breaking athletes who belong to the national Taekwondo demonstration team and have participated in the defeat contest. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, a questionnaire was conducted on 312 youth breaking athletes who have participated in the national breaking competition and analyzed the collected data. Method: In the study, a frequency analysis(Frequencies) to determine the general characteristics of the study participants and a correlation analysis(Correlation analysis) to determine the influence relationship between the variables of the measurement tool using SPSS 26.0 were conducted with the data collected through the questionnaire. In addition, Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the effect of self-management on sports competition anxiety. All statistical significance levels were set to .05. Results: This study was conducted to verify how self-management of Taekwondo breaking athletes affects sports competition anxiety. The results are as follows. First, as a result of analyzing the differences in self-management and sports competition anxiety of Taekwondo-breaking athletes according to the gender of youth Taekwondo-breaking athletes, there was no statistically significant difference. Second, there was no statistically significant difference as a result of analyzing the differences in self-management and sports competition anxiety of Taekwondo-breaking athlets according to middle and high school of youth Taekwondo-breaking athletes. Third, there was no statistically significant difference as a result of analyzing the differences in self-management and sports competition anxiety of Taekwondo-breaking athletes according to the winning experience of youth Taekwondo-breaking athletes. Fourth, as a result of analyzing how the self-management of youth Taekwondo breaking athletes affects sports competition anxiety, statistically significant differences were found in some factors. Conclusion: In the study, it was found that the self-management of taekwondo breaking athletes affects sports competition anxiety in some factors. Based on the results of this study, subsequent studies require research on the relationship and influence of more diverse factors and development of self-management programs to lower competition anxiety, and attempts of qualitative research are needed. [Keywords] Juvenile, Taekwondo Technical Breaking, Self-Management, Competition State Anxiety, Taekwondo Demonstration References [1] Kim J & Lee S & Park J. Differences in Protection for Sports Imagery Ability of High School Taekwondo Breaking Athletes. Protection Convergence, 5(2), 50-59 (2020). [Article] [2] Lim YR. The Mediating Effects of Leader Trust on the Relationship Between Team Cohesion and Perceived Performance in Taekwondo Demonstration Competitions Players. Taekwondo Journal of Kukkiwon, 9(3), 41-57 (2018). [3] Lee S & Kim J & Park J. The Effect of Sports Motivation of Middle School Soccer Players on the Sports Goal Orientation. Kinesiology, 5(2), 12-20 (2020). [Article] [4] Kwack HT & Shin HC. A Narrative Study on the Preparation Period for the Performance Improvement of the Winner of Taekwondo Demonstration Competitions. Kinesiology, 5(1), 33-47 (2020). [Article] [5] Kim JS & Jang K. Time Series Trends in the Change of Competition Rules in Taekwondo TechnicalBreaking: Targeting Technical Breaking. The Korean Journal of Sport, 17(4), 1197-1208 (2019). [6] Kim JS & Cheon WK & Park JS. Exploring the Motives of College Taekwondo Poomsae Athletes for Participating in the Poomsae Competitions. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(1), 1-13 (2020). [Article] [7] Lee YO & Park HS. A Study on Competitive Anxiety of Unemployed Taekwondo Athletes. The World Society of Taekwondo Culture, 1(6), 1-43 (2013). [10] Landers DM. The Arousal Performance Relationship Revisited. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 51(1), 77-90 (1980). [11] Kim SJ & Lee JB. Effects of Imagery Ability on Competitive State Anxiety of Taekwondo Poomsae Players, The Korean Journal of Sport. The Korean Journal of Sport, 16(4), 1185-1197 (2018). [12] Kim YH & Seo SG. A Review of Perfectionism: Assessment and Treatment. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 20(3), 581-613 (2008). [13] So YH & Jung JH. Relationship Between Perfectionism, Exercise Stress, and Goal Orientation of College Athletes. The Korean Journal of Physical Education, 49(4), 153-165 (2010). [14] Shin H & Kim J. The Effects of University Taekwondo Demonstration Team’s Self-management on Exercise Commitment and Perceived Performance. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(2), 20-30 (2020). [Article] [15] Lee KP. The Effect of Kumdo Players's Self-management on Game Stress and Competi-tive Anxiety. The Korean Journal of Kumdo, 28(1), 15-26 (2017). [17] Iosifidou P & Doganis G. Confirmatory factor Analysis of the Greek Version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 32(4), 400-405 (2001). [18] Heo JH. Development and Validation of Athletes` Self-management Question-naire(ASMQ). Korean Journal of Sport Psychology, 14(2), 95-109 (2003). [20] Lee DS & Kim YN. Study on Self-management, Competitive State Anxiety and Psychological Skills of the Players who Participated in Asian Junior Badminton Championships. Journal of Coaching Development, 18(3), 43-51 (2016). [21] Lee HJ & Hong MS. Taekwondo Poomsae Athletes' Self-control, Their Trust in Instructor, Fairness of Referees Decision, Competition Anxiety and Perceived Athletic Performance. The Korea Journal of Sports Science, 25(5), 245-259 (2016). [22] Chang BW & Kim BD. The Influence of Self-management on Competition Anxiety of Soft Tennis Player. Journal of Physical Education & Lifetime Sports Science, 26(1), 1-17 (2014). [23] Cho HI & Yun BM & So YH. The Influences of Self-management on Self-confidence and Competition Anxiety of High School Bowling Players. Korean Journal of Sport Psychology, 19(4), 21-34 (2008). [19] Han SY. The Influence of Self-management Strategy and Tenacity upon Athletic Performance in University Taekwondo Players. Seonam University, Doctoral Thesis (2013). [8] Woodman T & Hardy L. Stress and Anxiety. Handbook of Sport Psychology (2001). [16] Martens R & Vealey RS & Burton D. Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Human Kinetics Books (1990). [9] Martens R & Burton D & Vealey RS & Bump LA & Smith DE. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. In Simposium Conducted at the Meeting of North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (1982). ?Source:
  • The Influence of Leader's Leadership Type on Psychological Factors of University TAEKWONDO Demonstration Team
    By. Hochul Shin
    Abstract Purpose: Competitive anxiety is a state in which an athlete feels threat, fear, and pressure from the fierce competition and difficulty of winning, which inevitably accompanies an athletic event. This study seeks to delve into the influences of leadership on the competition status anxiety and psychological factors of university taekwondo demonstration teams, and examine the relationship between them. Method: Data collected through the questionnaire in this study was analyzed using SPSS 26.0. Frequency analysis was performed to find out the general characteristics of the study participants, and exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach' α coefficient, an internal consistency test, were used to verify the validity and reliability of the measurement tool. In addition, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the influence between variables of self-management, exercise commitment, and perceived athletic performance, and the significance level was set to .05. Results: First, it was found that the leadership of the leader had a statistically significant effect on cognitive state anxiety and state confidence among the competing state anxiety factors of university taekwondo demonstrators, and there was statistically no significant level in physical state anxiety. Second, it was found that leadership had a statistically significant effect on crisis management and confidence/achievement motivation among the psychological factors of the university taekwondo demonstrators, and there was no statistically significant level in anxiety control. Third, it was found that, among the elements of competition state anxiety of the university taekwondo demonstration team, cognitive state anxiety had a statistically significant effect on anxiety control, and there was no statistically significant level in physical state anxiety and state confidence. Conclusion: It can be said that the anxiety and psychological factors of the university taekwondo demonstrators' competition status according to leadership behavior style an effect. Accordingly, the results show that the positive behavioral pattern of the leader is related to the confidence of the athletes, the ability to cope with crisis, anxiety, and competition anxiety. It was determined that in order to improve athletes' performance and achieve good results in a perfect taekwondo demonstration situation, various behavior patterns of the leaders are necessary. [Keywords] Leader's, Leadership, Psychological Factors, Taekwondo, Demonstration References [1] Kim JS & Shin HC & Lee SJ. Verification of Difference in the Level of Career Decisiveness Depending on the Activities of University Taekwondo Demonstration Teams. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(1), 26-38 (2020). [Article] [2] Shin YA & Park JS. A Study on the Evaluation of Taekwondo Internship Abroad Program. International Journal of Martial Arts, 4(2), 25-34 (2019). [Article] [3] Kim YJ & Jeon JW. Current Status and Development Plan of Taekwondo Demonstration Contest. Taekwondo Journal of Kukkiwon, 9(4), 43-64 (2018). [4] Kim KD & Jang K. The Transformation Process of World Taekwondo Hanmadang. Journal of the Korean Sports Association, 12(2), 259-270 (2014). [5] Kang SH & Jang K. The Influence of the Satisfaction of Participation in Exercise of Taekwondo Demonstration Teams in College on Exercise Stress and Satisfaction with School Life. Journal of the Korean Sports Association, 14(4), 67-80 (2016). [6] Roh SH & Heo JS & Yang DS. The Effect of Taekwondo Demonstrator's Multidimensional Perfec-tionism on Achievement Goal Orientation and Self-management. Journal of the Korean Society of Sports Science, 24(5), 631-643 (2015). [7] Kim JS & Cheon WK & Park JS. Exploring the Motives of College Taekwondo Poomsae Athletes for Participating in the Poomsae Competitions. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(1), 1-13 (2020). [Article] [10] Kim JY. Sports Psychology: A Qualitative Study of Rhythmic Gymnastics Coaches' Lead-ership Style. Journal of the Korean Physical Education Association, 41(5), 189-206 (2002). [11] Kim CY & Kwon SJ & Kim GH & Kim JS. A Study on Player Satisfaction according to the Type of Taekwondo Leader Leadership. Journal of the Korean Physical Education Association, 52(3), 327-336 (2013). [12] Oh KI & Choi YR. The Influence of Youth Taekwondo Leader's Leadership Style on the Leader-Player Exchange Relationship (LMX) and Performance. Journal of the Korean Wom-en's Sports Association, 31(4), 89-103 (2017). [14] Cho HI. A Study on Sports Competition Anxiety using Meta-analysis. Journal of the Korean Society of Sports Science, 8(1), 143-153 (1999). [18] Kim SJ & Lee JB. The Influence of Taekwondo Poomsae Players' Visual Ability on Com-petitive State Anxiety. Journal of Korean Sports Association, 16(4), 1185-1197 (2018). [19] Gould D. Goal Setting for Peak Performance. Applied Sport Psychology, 11(2), 133-148 (1986). [20] Kwack HT & Shin HC. A Narrative Study on the Preparation Period for the Performance Im-provement of the Winner of Taekwondo Demonstration Competitions. Kinesiology, 5(1), 33-47 (2020). [Article] [21] Park JS & Choi JW. The Effects of Psychological Skills Training of Juvenile Billiard Players on At-tention, Competitive State Anxiety and Performance. Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Education, 63, 469-482 (2016). [22] Cha YN & Park JS & Lee SJ. An Investigation on the Influence of Taekwondo Demonstration Team Activities on College Life Adaptation. International Journal of Protection, Security & Investigation, 5(1), 14-21 (2020). [Article] [25] Smith RE & Schutz RW & Smoll FL & Ptacek JT. Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of Sport-specific Psychological Skills: The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(4), 379-398 (1995). [27] Bang Y & Kim JW. A Systematic Observation and Analysis of the Coaching Behavior of Basketball Leaders. Korean Journal of Sports Education, 8(1), 85-97 (2001). [32] Kim HS & Kim DJ & Kim YK. A Study on Psychological Skill Ability according to Performance Level in the Gymnasts. Korea Sport Research, 17(6), 967-974 (2006). [8] Jang EY. The Relationship between Player Satisfaction and Performance according to the Leader-ship Type of the Judo Leader. Kyungnam University, Master's Thesis (2014). [9] Jang SH. A Study on Player Satisfaction according to the Types of Female Professional Basketball Leaders. Korea University, Master's Thesis (2005). [23] Yun JH. Psychological Skills Training of a High School Taekwondo Demonstration Team to Control Competition Anxiety. Korea National Sport University, Master's Thesis (2019). [24] Kim JS. Psychological Factors in Taekwondo Demonstration. Korea National Sport University, Master's Thesis (2010). [26] Han JM. The Effects of Leadership Behavior Patterns on the Competitive Anxiety of Taekwondo Athletes. Sogang University, Master's Thesis (2012). [28] Park SR. Correelation of Competitive Anxiety of the Leadership Style of Taekwondo Leaders. Chosun University, Master's Thesis (2017). [29] Lee JH. The Effects of Leadership in Judo Instructors on Athelete's Psychologic Skills. Kyonggi University, Master's Thesis (2010). [30] Jeon IJ. The Psychological Perception of Athletes Effect Effect. Daejeon University, Master's Thesis (2002). [31] Jeon JH. The Effects of Elite Artistic Gymnasts Competitive State Anxiety on Their Psychological Skill Factor sand Mental Strength. Yongin University, Master's Thesis (2011). [13] Kroll WP. Graduate Study and Research in Physical Education. Human Kinetics (1982). [15] Martens R & Vealey RS & Burton D. Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Human Kinetics (1990). [16] Martens R. Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Champaogn. Human Kinetics (1982). [17] Cratty BJ. Psychology in Contemporary Sport. Prentice Hall (1989). ? Source:
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH Relation between Perception, Appearance Satisfaction, and Happiness of Women Participating in Jewelry ..
    By. Chunyong Lee, Jaebum Lee, Eungyeol Na
    Abstract Purpose: This study was conducted in order to examine the relations among the recognition, happiness and appearance satisfaction of jewelry therapy participant women and find out which structural effect appearance satisfaction as mediation effect has on feeling of happiness. Method: Study participants are 152 women in their 30s~ 60s purchased color jewelry at the jewelry shopping mall in Jongrogu, Republic of Korea and they were selected in a way of purposive sampling as the ones subject to the analysis of this study. Second, in order to analyze relationship which recognition and appearance satisfaction influence on the happiness, Multiple Regression Analysis is conducted. First, Structural Equation Modeling(SEM) is set in order to verify mediating effect of structural relations of each variables and appearance satisfaction variables and the assessment of model fitness and path coefficient between variables is conducted. Fifth, positive statistical analysis verifies at the p<.05 level. Results: First, in examining the result of multiple regression analysis in terms of the effect of participants’ recognition and appearance satisfaction to happiness, it is discovered that, to the happiness, physical recognition, social recognition, educational recognition and appearance satisfaction are statistically significant but psychological recognition is not. Second, it is discovered that appearance satisfaction works as significant mediation effect between the recognition and happiness. In other words, it is discovered that the recognition, an external variable, has a significant effect on appearance satisfaction, an internal variable. Conclusion: Through this study, we can see that the recognition of women participating in jewelry therapy has positive effect not only on appearance satisfaction but also happiness with appearance satisfaction as mediation variable. That result of this study is significant in that it provides basic information of psychological health relations with which emotional response can be scientifically analyzed and utilized in the reality which lacks objective evaluation standard for jewelry therapy [Keywords] Psychological Health, Perception, Appearance Satisfaction, Happiness, Jewelry Therapy References [1] Kim TS & Lee JB. Analysis of Perception of Naturopathy Convergence and Utilization Satisfaction Perceived by Skin Beauty Industry Workers. Protection Convergence, 5(2), 94-102 (2020). [Article] [2] Park SH & Lee JB & Byeon YS. A Phenomenological Study on the Elderly's Experience of Participating in National Based Health Exercise. Public Value, 5(2), 23-31 (2020). [Article] [3] Jung JS & Lee JB & Oh JM. The Relation between the Female Elderly’s Satisfaction of Oriental Medicine Qigong Exercise Program Participation and Successful Aging Perception. International Journal of Human Movement Science, 12(3), 33-46 (2018). [4] Choi YS & Lee JB & Liang D. Effect of Fun of Elderly Women Participating in Health Qigong on the Health Related Quality of Life. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(2), 11-19 (2020). [Article] [5] Jeong JH & Pyo KS & Kim JS. The Earthquake-related Stress and Mediators of the Elderly Living Alone: Focusing on the Elderly in Pohang. Korean Journal of Gerontological Social Welfare, 74(2), 35-60 (2019). [6] Hong SH & Lim HJ & Jang CG. The Effect of Work-life Balance on Job Stress, Job Performance, and Turnover Intention: Focused on Airline Cabin Crews. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 35(1), 147-159 (2021). [7] Park GY & Kim HS & Li Y. Virtue for Post Covid-19 and AI Technology. Robotics & AI Ethic, 5(2), 8-18 (2020). [Article] [8] Park EK. Analysis on the Cases of Railroad Traffic Response and the Future Strategies Under CO-RONA-19. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 5(2), 30-40 (2020). [Article] [9] Bai XF & Zhao XM & Shin HB. The Reflective Research on the Impact of the Public Health Crisis on Chinese Sport Industry by the Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(2), 28-37 (2020). [Article] [10] Park GY & Lee WB & Lim YJ. Covid-19 and Some Implications to AI. Robotics & AI Ethic, 5(1), 16-24 (2020). [Article] [11] Shon CB & Lee JY. Phenomenological Case Study of the Experience of Telehealth Digital Art Therapy in a Self-quarantined Person before Confirmed with Covid-19. Journal of the Korea Con-tents Association, 20(12), 646-658 (2020). [12] Park SI & Kim KH. Influences of Workplace Bullying and Job Satisfaction on Happiness among Perioperative Nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 27(1), 54-63 (2021). [13] Han JH & Sa HJ & Lee MS. The relationship among Social Network Service Perception, Leisure Satisfaction and Happiness. Korean Journal of Leisure & Recreation, 44(4), 1-10 (2020). [14] Lee SH & Kwak JH & Seok R. Structural Relationship between Fun Factors, Physical Self-efficacy, and Subjective Happiness of the Elderly Participating in Life Sports. The Korean Journal of Growth and Development, 28(4), 537-544 (2020). [15] Tae DS. The Influence of Motivation to Participate in Learning on Academic Self-efficacy and Subjective Happiness in Adult Learners in Cosmetology Colleges. The Korean Society of Cosmetics and Cosmetology, 10(3), 367-381 (2020). [16] Jeong HS. Meta-analysis of Variables related to Happiness of Married Working Women. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 29(4), 503-517 (2020). [17] Lee ES. The Effects of Family Communication and Media Exposure on High School Girls Cosmetic Surgery Intentions: An Exploratory Study on the Mediating Effect of the Behavior of Appearance Internalization, Appearance Satisfaction, and Information Seeking Behavior. Korean Journal of Broadcasting and Telecommunication Studies, 33(2), 140-183 (2019). [18] Lee JY. The Effect of Sociocultural Attitudes toward Appearance, Appearance Satisfaction, and Appearance Stress on Clothing Behavior in Female College Students. The Journal of the Korean Society of Knit Design, 15(3), 26-35 (2017). [19] Ha HJ & Lee JB & Lee OR & Hwang G & Park SR & K HJ & Kim SS. Search for SNB-program Partici-pation Experience and Constituent Factors for Health Intervention: Using the Colaizzi Method. In-ternational Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(2), 66-73 (2020). [Article] [20] Kim SJ & Lee JB & Na EG. Q-methodological Approach to the Perception of Meridian Massage for Health Management. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(2), 47-54 (2020). [Article] [21] Sim WY. Mediation Effect of Active Stress-coping Behavior in the Relationship between Appear-ance Satisfaction and Happiness of High School Students. Korea Journal of Teacher Education, 28(2), 101-121 (2012). [22] Ryff CD. Happiness is Everything or is IT? Exploration on the Meaning of Psychological Well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081 (1989). [23] Kim MS & Kim HW & Cha KH. Analyses on the Construct of Psychological Well-being (PWB) of Korean Male and Female Adults. The Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 15(2), 19-39 (2001). [25] Kim GR & Jin YM. The Influence of Beauty Consumption Behavior on Self-respect and Appearance Satisfaction. Journal of the Korean Society Design Culture, 25(4), 27-36 (2019). [26] Kim HJ & Kim MH. The Effects of Appearance Satisfaction and Beauty Behavior on Happiness of Female University Students: Focused on Face. Journal of Cosmetics and Cosmetology, 9(1), 87-95 (2019). [27] Lee SY & Park KH. The Influence of Self-construal on Body Satisfaction and Emotion in Situations with Appearance-related Social Comparisons. The Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psy-chology, 32(2), 1-22 (2018). [28] Shin JS & Song SH & Ryoo KM. The Influence of Hotel Employees Appearance Satisfaction on Self-esteem, Self-confidence, and Psychological Happiness. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 33(12), 19-31 (2019). [29] Ahn CE & Song YS & Lee KK. The Effect of Appearance Satisfaction and Psychological Happiness according to Hair Dyeing. Journal of the Society of Cosmetology, 26(1), 140-148 (2020). [30] Park JM & Park JB. The Relationship between Body Image and Psychological Happiness of Female Line Dance Participants. Journal of the Korea Entertainment Industry Association, 11(6), 113-123 (2017). [24] Lee HS & Lim JH. Structural Equation Model Analysis and AMOS 18.0/19.0. Jibhyeonjae (2011). ?Source:
  • Development and Effects of the Self-Determination Improvement Program for Patients with Schizophrenia in CRISIS
    By. Insuk Kim , Jaewoon Lee
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study were to develop a self-determination improvement program for patients with schizophrenia and to confirm their effects on autonomy, competence, relationship, and self-care agency. Method: The study was in a pre-test, post-test for a nonequivalent control group design. The participants were 47 inpatients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia(experimental group:24; control group:23). The self-determination improvement program was provided in 8 session over 4 weeks. Data was collected from September to October 2020. Data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 25.0 program with Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and the independent t-test. Results: After participating self-determination improvement program, the experimental group showed a significant increased in autonomy(t=4.24, p<.001), competence(t=5.33, p<.001), relationship(t=7.90, p<.001) and self-care agency(t=2.49, p=.016) compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings of this study it was confirmed that the self-determination improvement program for patients with schizophrenia improves basic psychological needs(autonomy, competence, relationship) and self-care agency. This suggests that it is useful as an intervention program for the recovery of patients with schizophrenia in clinical practice. [Keywords] Autonomy, Competence, Relationship, Schizophrenia, Self-Care References [2] Lee JW & Kim WS & Lee JA & Park JW. Effects of the Acceptance-commitment Therapy Based Anger Crisis Management Program on Patients with Schizophrenia: Focusing on Psychological Flexibility and Anger Expression Style. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 4(2), 33-43 (2019). [Article] [4] Kim YY & Park HS. The Effects of Insight and Empowerment on Function and Quality of Life for Patients with Schizophrenia. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19(1), 11-21 (2010). [5] Keum R & Kim SA. Perceived Functional Health Patterns and Recovery in People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 238-249 (2012). [7] Song HJ & Hyun MY & Lee EJ. Hope, Self-care Agency and Mental Health in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 20(2), 180-187 (2011). [8] Hyun MY & Kim JH. A Study on Self-care Activity, Self-care Agency, and Mental Health for Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 18(2), 129-136 (2009). [9] Lee JW & Kim JH. Effects of Basic Psychological Needs and Support of Health Professionals on Self Care Agency in Inpatients with Schizophrenia: Based on the Self-determination Theory. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 29(1), 33-42 (2020). [10] Lee MH & Kim AY. Development and Construct Validation of the Basic Psychological Needs Scale for Korean Adolescents: Based on the Self-determination Theory. Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 22(4), 157-174 (2008). [11] Ryan RM & Deci EL. Self-determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motiva-tion, Social Development, and Well-being. American Pstchologist, 55(1), 68-78 (2000). [12] Cho CK & Kim DJ & Park SH. The Effects of Self-directed Learning Ability on Self-Determination and Career Maturity among Students in the Department of Security Ser-vices. International Journal of Criminal Study, 1(2), 8-12 (2016). [Article] [13] Gagné M & Deci EL. Self‐determination Theory and Work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-362 (2005). [14] Bae JY & Kim YJ. Youth Mental Health Crisis and Countermeasure in Korean. Interna-tional Journal of Human & Disaster, 1(1), 13-18 (2016). [Article] [15] Deci EL & Ryan RM. The "What" and "Why" of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268 (2000). [17] West P & Isenberg M. Instrument Development: The Mental Health-related Self-care Agency Scale. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 11(3), 126-132 (1997). [18] Deci EL & Ryan RM. Self-determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49(3), 182-185 (2008). [19] Ryan RM & Deci EL. A Self-determination Theory Approach to Psychotherapy: The Motivational Basis for Effective Change. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49(3), 186-193 (2008). [20] Ryan RM & Deci EL. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67 (2000). [1] Boyd MA. Psychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2018). [3] Min SG. Modern Psychiatry(6th Edition). Ilchokak (2015). [6] Orem DE. Nursing Concepts of Practice(6th Edition). Mosby (2001). [16] Hoffman A & Field S. Steps to Self-determination: A Curriculum to Help Adolescents Learn to Achieve Their Goals-Second Edition. PRO-FD (2005). ?Source: