Articles 60
  • Instructional Systems Design to Reflect ETHICS in AI’s Rules of Engagement Learning for Future Warfare
    By. Hyunsoo Kim
    Abstract Purpose: Rules of Engagement(ROE) refer to rules or directives that define the circumstances, conditions, extent, manner, etc. of the application of force or action that can be considered provocative by the armed forces. ROE do not explain how results are achieved, but rather indicate what judgments are unacceptable. Focusing this, the purpose of this study is to propose an Instructional Systems Design(ISD) configured to reflect ethics in AI’s ROE learning for future warfare. Method: This study uses Development Research Method for develop and propose an ISD. ISD refers to the creation of guidelines into smaller units of teaching or learning. If some guidelines are created for such ISD, it would set the composition and application of ROE, and AI will learn that guidelines through deep learning. And the AI makes a decision with this in the hypothetical dilemma situation where the application of the ROE is requested. Finally, human experts review and supplement the learning results of these neural networks. The sophistication of the AI’s learning and applying ROE would be achieved by feeding back this result to the ISD. Results: This study understands that ROE would also be essential for AI or AI-equipped military robot systems. In this process, AI performs the task of making judgments related to applying ROE, which is the principle of action in specific situations. To do this, Ai’s deep learning first collects necessary information and makes decisions based on it. Next, the results of this learning are applied in a new hypothetical dilemma situation. Finally, human experts' evaluation and feedback on the results are continuously made. This series of processes can be presented as a model of ISD oriented towards the moral development of AI. Conclusion: AI’s ROE learning converges to the learning of moral values. It focuses on the cognitive aspect of morality. Therefore, it would be possible to refine the cognitive moral judgment of deep learning by applying the learning hierarchy of taxonomy of educational objects and the logical test of validity of moral judgment oriented toward social justice. And the moral development of the neural network can be performed by modifying and complementing the results of human experts and feeding them back. [Keywords] Artificial Intelligence, Military, Rules of Engagement, Ethics, Instructional Systems Design References [1] Gonzalo G & Park S & Cho H. Prospects for New Wars in the 21st Century. International Journal of Military Affairs, 6(3), 43-53 (2021). [Article] [2] Choi J. Current and Future Considerations for the Use of Artificial Intelligence by the United States’ Department of Defense. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(1), 1-6 (2021). [Article] [3] Moon H. Study on the Improvement of Resource Management for the Establishment of a Smart Operation System for the Future War. International Journal of Military Affairs, 4(1), 26-32 (2019). [Article] [4] Jeong I. A Study on How to Expand the Role of Military Mobilization Forces in the Event of a National Disaster -Focusing on the Local Government and Regional Reserve Forces-. International Journal of Military Affairs, 6(2), 39-48 (2021). [Article] [5] Kim S & Cheung C. A Study on the Operation Key of Field Action Manual(FAM) That Works in Disaster Sites. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(2), 34-42 (2020). [Article] [6] Park G & Seo E & Shin H. A New Approach to Moral Injury of Soldiers during War. International Journal of Military Affairs, 4(1), 20-25 (2019). [Article] [7] Rasch R & Kott A & Forbus K. Incorporating AI into Military Decision Making: An Experiment. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Intelligent Systems, 18(4), 18-26 (2003). [8] Lee S. Authority for Issuing the Rules of Engagement of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces: Focused on the Scope of the Rules of Engagement Issuing Authority of the United Nations Command(UNC) and the Republic of Korea -United States Combined Forces Command(CFC)-. The Quarterly Journal of Defense Policy Studies, 33(4), 73-104 (2017). [9] Frost-nielsen P. Bringing Military Conduct out of the Shadow of Law: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Rules of Engagement. Journal of Military Ethics, 17(1), 21-35. (2018). [10] Kim J. Future Warfare and Artificial Intelligence Applications in the Republic of Korea Military: Problems and Alternatives. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(2), 11-20 (2021). [Article] [11] Hersh M. Professional Ethics and Social Responsibility: Military Work and Peacebuilding. International Federation of Automatic Control-papers On Line, 50(1), 10592-10602 (2017). [12] Mittelstadt B. Principles Alone cannot Guarantee Ethical AI. Nature Machine Intelligence, 1(11), 501-507 (2019). [13] Kim H. Approaches to Forming Ethical AI as an Artificial Moral Agent: Suggesting Virtue Education Method Through Comparison of Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(2), 44-51 (2021). [Article] [14] Kim J & Kim D & Kim J & Ryu K. Design and Implementation of Real-time Parallel Engine for Discrete Event Wargame Simulation. The Korea Information Processing Society Transactions: Part A, 10(2), 111-122 (2003). [15] Veziridis S & Karampelas P & Lekea I. Learn by Playing: A Serious War Game Simulation for Teaching Military Ethics. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer Global Engineering Education Conference, 1(1), 920-925 (2017). [16] Walker L & de Vries B & Trevethan S. Moral Stages and Moral Orientations in Real-life and Hypothetical Dilemmas. Child Development, 58(3), 842-858 (1987). [17] Bostyn D & Sevenhant S & Roets A. Of Mice, Men, and Trolleys: Hypothetical Judgment Versus Real-life Behavior in Trolley-style Moral Dilemmas. Psychological Science, 29(7), 1084-1093 (2018). [18] Lind G. The Importance of Role-taking Opportunities for Self-sustaining Moral Development. Journal of Research in Education, 10(1), 9-15 (2000). [19] Cummings R & Maddux C & Richmond A & Cladianos A. Moral Reasoning of Education Students: The Effects of Direct Instruction in Moral Development Theory and Participation in Moral Dilemma Discussion. Teachers College Record, 112(3), 621-644 (2010). [20] Seddon G. The Properties of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for the Cognitive Domain. Review of Educational Research, 48(2), 303-323 (1978). [21] Cooper W. Book Reviews: Harrow, Anita J. A Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain: A Guide for Developing Behavioral Objectives. American Educational Research Journal, 10(4), 325-327 (1973). [22] Stanny C. Reevaluating Bloom’s Taxonomy: What Measurable Verbs Can and Cannot Say about Student Learning. Education Sciences, 6(4), 37-47 (2016). [23] Harshman R. School Bussing: A Moral Development Viewpoint. Educational Leadership, 34(4), 293-297 (1977). [24] Smith B & Meux M & Coombs J & Nuthall G & Precians R. Abstracted from a Study of the Strategies of Teaching. Classroom Interaction Newsletter, 3(2), 1-9 (1968). [25] Ahmeti K & Ramadani N. Determination of Kohlberg’s Moral Development Stages and Chronological Age. International Journal of Social and Human Sciences, 8(15-16), 37-48 (2021). [26] Owe A & Baum D. Moral Consideration of Nonhumans in the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. AI and Ethics, 1(1), 517-528 (2021). [27] de Oliveira Fornasier M. The Regulation of the Use of Artificial Intelligence in Warfare: Between International Humanitarian Law(IHL) and Meaningful Human Control. Revista Jurídica da Presidência, 23(129), 67-93 (2021). [28] Lee A. Analyzing the Effects of AI Education Program based on AI Tools. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(2), 21-29 (2021). [Article] [29] Allen C & Varner G & Zinser J. Prolegomena to Any Future Artificial Moral Agent. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 12(3), 251-261 (2000). [30] Kim H. Suggestion of Building the AI Code of Ethics through Deep Learning and Big Data Based AI. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(1), 29-34 (2021). [Article] ?Source:
  • Creation of PUBLIC VALUE Service: The Effect of Cosmetics Consumption Needs on the Motive to Purchase Customized Cosmetics..
    By. Jin Lee, Eunjoo Choi
    Abstract Purpose: This study tried to analyze the relationship between the desire to consume cosmetics and the motivation to purchase customized cosmetics. In the relationship between these variables, the relationship between the perception of the customized cosmetics dispensing manager, who promotes the consumption desire, as a moderating effect, on the purchase motive for customized cosmetics was confirmed. The purpose is to expand the consumption of customized cosmetics and to present the public service value of the customized cosmetics system. Method: A total of 561 questionnaires were used online for men and women of age of 10 to 69 who have purchased cosmetics nationwide. SPSS 22.0 was used as an empirical analysis method, and analysis was performed using multiple regression analysis and process macros. In order to find out the moderating effect of the perception of customized cosmetics dispensing managers, an analysis was conducted using Process Macro No. 59 model proposed by Hayes(2012). Results: First, it was revealed that the independent variable, the desire to consume cosmetics, and the dependent variable, the purchase motive for customized cosmetics, had a significant positive effect and a significant influence relationship between the variables. Second, the perception of the customized cosmetics dispensing manager is to motivate the purchase of customized cosmetics so that the brand/self-expression needs, the relationship/ride needs, the nature-friendly needs, and the pleasure needs are satisfied in a reasonable way in the relationship between the cosmetic consumption needs and the customized cosmetics purchase motivation. A modulatory effect in which an important inducing action is performed was confirmed. As a result, it was found that the influence of cosmetics consumption motives on the purchase motive of customized cosmetics is stronger when the customized cosmetics dispensing manager is known. Conclusion: As a result of the study, it was confirmed that it is a factor that promotes the desire to consume cosmetics by satisfying the effectiveness of products according to the professionalism and trust of the customized cosmetics dispensing manager. In other words, the confirmation of the moderating effect of the perception of the customized cosmetics dispensing manager is to secure the safety of the ingredients and functions of cosmetics that can be induced by consumer claims in the process of cosmetic consumption desire leading to consumption behavior. These results can be said that the customized cosmetic system showed public service value. In addition, by revealing that the higher the awareness of the customized cosmetics dispensing manager, the higher the motivation to purchase customized cosmetics. This suggests the need for a differentiated marketing strategy. [Keywords] Customized Cosmetics, Consumption Needs, Purchase Motive, Customized Cosmetics Dispensing Manager, Moderating Effect References [1] Lee MS & Song TI. A Study on Reliability and Purchase Behavior of Customized Cosmetic -Focus on 20 to 50 Aged Female Living in Gwangju. Journal of the Korean Society of Design Culture, 26(3), 283-293 (2020). [2] Seonmi Gong & Minshin Kim. Actual Use and Preference for Free Cosmetics by age. Korean Society of Aesthetics, 14(3), 331-342 (2018). [3] Kwon SS & Jeon HJ. Purchasing Behavior of Customized Cosmetics according to Age. Journal of the Korean Society for Aesthetic Art, 21(1), 229-240 (2020). [4] Yoon HJ & Kim ES. Creation of Public Service Value based on the Mediating Effect of Customized Cosmetics Salesperson Customer Empathy in the Relation between Middle-aged Women's Cosmetic Consumption Needs and Customized Cosmetic Purchase Intentions. Public Value, 6(2), 28-44 (2021). [Article] [5] Shim YJ & Choi JS. A Study on the Development Direction of the Beauty Industry Following the 4th Industrial Revolution. Journal of the Korean Society of Nail Beauty, 5(1), 29-35 (2017). [6] Kim TS & Lee JB. Analysis of Perception of Naturopathy Convergence and Utilization Satisfaction Perceived by Skin Beauty Industry Workers. Protection Convergence, 5(2), 94-102 (2020). [Article] [7] Park HG. K Beauty + Tech Wave. Korea Marketing Research Institute, 51(11), 42-51 (2017). [9] Lim AY. Measures to Enhance Brand Image through Customizing Service -Focused on Domestic and Foreign Case Studies-. Communications Design Society, 50, 1770-180 (2015). [10] Choi KI. Analysis of Skin Concerns by Age Group and a Study on Customized Cosmetics. Journal of the Korean Society of Makeup Design, 12(1), 15-29 (2016). [11] Gong SM & Kim MS. Actual use and Preference for Free Cosmetics by Age. Korean Society of Aesthetics, 14(3), 331-342(2018). [12] Kim KO. Relationship between Consumption Desire, Participation Motive, and Consumption Behavior of Sports Center Users. Journal of the Korean Society for Sports Sociology, 22(4), 193-212 (2009). [14] Lee CY & Lee JB & Na EG. Psychological Health Relationbetween Perception, Appearance Satisfaction, and Happiness of Women Participating in Jewelry Therapy. Protection Convergence, 6(1), 12-21 (2021). [Article] [17] Son SA & Kim ES & Park HN. The Mediating Effect of the PerceivedValue in the Relationship Between the Self-paced Motivation of Purchase of Beauty Device and the Intent to Use Continuously for Middle-aged Women Bodily. Kinesiology, 6(3), 1-11, (2021). [Article] [18] Kim KO & Yoo HJ & Nam SJ. Development of a Purchase Motivation Scale based on Self-determination Theory. Korean Journal of Home Management, 24(1), 71-82 (2006). [19] Han SJ & Kim MS. A Study on the Different Clothing Purchasing Motives and Information Sources for Lifestyles of Women in their 50s and 60s. The Society of Clothing Culture, 10(2), 116-131 (2002). [20] Lee YM & Lee OH. A Study on Clothing Purchasing Motivation and Product Evaluation Criteria for Working Women’s Shopping Propensity. The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, 11(2), 193-207 (2003). [22] Choi E. Awareness Survey on Customized Cosmetics and Customized Cosmetics Dispensing Manager System. Journal of the Korean Society of Aesthetics, 25(5), 1229-1238 (2019). [13] Kim MJ. Paper Title Development of a Scale for Measuring Consumption Needs. Sungkyunkwan University, Doctoral Thesis (2007). [15] Kim SY. Paper Title a Study on the Characteristics of Sports Consumption Culture: Focusing on Baudrillard Consumer Social Theory. Yonsei University, Doctoral Thesis (2001). [16] Jin Lee. Paper Title The Effect of Cosmetic Consumption Desire on Purchasing Motivation, Brand Satisfaction, Attachment and Loyalty. Konkuk University, Doctoral Thesis (2012). [23] Jo YK. The Effect of Fashion Magazine Cosmetic Advertisement on Purchasing Behavior -Focused on the Moderating Effect of Involvement-. Sejong University, Doctoral Thesis (2019). [8] Lee MS. Improvement Plan of Customized Cosmetics Management System. Korea University Industry-university Cooperation Foundation (2016). [21] Hayes AF. Process: A Versatile Computational Tool for Observed Variable Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Modeling (2012). ?Source:
  • Study on the Mediating Effect of Self Focused Attention and Depression in the Relationship of Effect Between the HUMAN’s Self..
    By. Guteak Bae, Soonsun Park, Youngmi Jin, Myeongja Yoon
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively examine an under self esteem and inter personal problems by predicting the mediating effects of self esteem and negative emotions including depression and self focused attention, and consequently, by exploring the effects on the inter personal problems. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted targeting 127 college students from the departments related to early childhood education located in Gyeongnam. To examine and understand the mediating effects of self focused attention and depression in the relationship of effect between human self esteem and inter personal problems, a hypothetical research model was set, which was sought to be statistically validated. For such research data, the descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation analysis, and the serial multiple mediator model regression analysis were performed by using the statistical programs of SPSS 26.0 and PROCESS v35. Results: First, self esteem demonstrated a significantly positive correlation with general self focused attention and a significantly negative correlation with depression and inter personal problems, and the general self focused attention demonstrated a positive correlation with the immersive self focused attention. Furthermore, the immersive self focused attention demonstrated a positive correlation with depression and inter personal problem, and the depression and inter personal problem demonstrated a significantly positive correlation. Second, in terms of the effect of self esteem on the inter personal problems, depression turned out to have a partially mediating effect. Furthermore, as for the path of the relationship of effect between self esteem and inter personal problems, both the ego focus and immersive ego focus turned out to have an effect on the depression. Conclusion: Self esteem and depression are the psychological characteristic variables which tend to remain constant and stable despite the changes amidst the passage of time, and since the self esteem influences the inter personal relationships based on the self focused attention, it is necessary to develop a program which can help strengthen and enhance the positive aspects of one's inside. [Keywords] Self Focused Attention, Self Esteem, Relationship, Inter Personal Problem, Depression References [3] Kwon SM. Psychopathology and Cognition 1: Focusing on Emotional Disorders. Seminar Materials of the Korean Psychological Association, 1995(1), 49-95 (1995). [4] Jang JY & Kwak NE & Lee JY. The Structural Relationship among Maladaptive Self-focused Attention, Emotional Regulation, Rejection Sensitivity, Depression in Adolescents. Journal of Youth Welfare, 18(1), 285-304 (2016). [5] Alden LE & Phillips N. An Interpersonal Analysis of Social Anxiety and Depression. 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  • A Study on the Economical Design of Protection Facilities through EXPLOSION TEST and Simulation
    By. Sangho Baek, Sukbong Kim
    Abstract Purpose: In this study, the possibility of economical design of a protective structure was presented based on explosion test data and computer simulation results on the safety of both a building and human bodies for the combat training building. Method: A training facility was built for soldiers to experience the vibration, pressure, and noise generated inside the building due to the explosion of the TNT. In the explosion proof test, 9lb of TNT, equivalent to the weight of a 4.2-inch mortar shell, was detonated in four places around the building, including the roof of the training building, the door, and the outside of the wall to determine the damage. Vibration, pressure and noise transmitted into the building were measured. After the explosion test, the damage to the building was examined through a rebound hardness test and visual inspection, and the impact on the human body was estimated by measuring the pressure at three spots inside the building. Afterwards, computer modeling and simulation was performed using High Explosion Damage & Injury Assessment Model(HExDAM) and simulation results were compared with explosion test measurements. Results: As a result of inspecting the structural damage of the building, there was no significant displacement of the structure and it was determined that there was no problem in using the building. The compressive strength of concrete was observed through Schmidt hammer, it showed 96% of the strength compared to the design strength(30MPa). The pressure inside the building was measured in the range between 0.063 and 0.488 kPa, which is a very small value that is harmless to the human body. According to computer simulation, the internal pressure increased as the wall thickness decreased. However, even if the wall thickness was reduced, the pressure delivered to the inside did not increase significantly, and it was still found to be harmless to the human body. Conclusion: Through the explosion test, it was confirmed that the structure and personnel inside the training building for combat field experience were safe enough against the explosive power of a 4.2-inch mortar shell. Computer simulations showed that there is room for reducing the thickness of the wall of the building, and the necessity of economical design was suggested by using computer simulation for designing protection facilities and military facilities. [Keywords] Blast Effects, Explosion Test, Reinforced Concrete Building, HExDAM, Modeling & Simulation References [1] Kim J. Future Warfare and Artificial Intelligence Applications in the ROK Military: Problems and Alternatives. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(2), 11-20 (2021). [Article] [2] Johnson J. Artificial Intelligence & Future Warfare: Implications for International Security. Defense & Security Analysis, 35(2), 147-69 (2019). [3] Sharma P & Sarma KK & Mastorakis NE. Artificial Intelligence Aided Electronic Warfare Systems-recent Trends and Evolving Applications. IEEE Access, 8, 224761-224780 (2020). [4] Li Y & Cho H & Park G. The Advent of AI and Its Some Implications to Military Affairs. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(1), 38-47 (2020). [Article] [5] Helfer T & Jordan N & Lee R & Pietrusiak P & Cave K & Schairer K. Noise-induced Hearing Injury and Comorbidities among Postdeployment U.S. Army Soldiers: April 2003-June 2009. American Journal of Audiology, 20(1), 33-41 (2011). [6] Samson K. Blast-related Eardrum Damage May Indicate Brain Injury, US Military Doctors in Iraq Report. Neurology Today, 7(18), 25-26 (2007). [7] Myers PJ & Wilmington DJ & Gallun FJ & Henry JA & Fausti SA. Hearing Impairment and Traumatic Brain Injury among Soldiers: Special Considerations for the Audiologist. Seminars in Hearing, 30(1), 5-27 (2009). [8] Jordan N & Lee R & Helfer T. Noise-induced Hearing Injury among Army Active Duty Soldiers Deployed to the Central Command Area of Operations. Seminars in Hearing, 30(1), 28-37 (2009). [9] Van’t Wout MC & Van Dyk GA. Managing Morale on the Battlefield: A Psychological Perspective. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, 43(1), 127-48 (2015). [10] Park G & Seo E & Shin H. A New Approach to Moral Injury of Soldiers during WAR. International Journal of Military Affairs, 4(1), 20-25 (2019). [Article] [11] Jones E. Moral Injury in Time of War. The Lancet, 391(10132), 1766-1767 (2018). [12] Litz BT & Stein N & Delaney E & Lebowitz L & Nash WP & Silva C & Maguen S. Moral Injury and Moral Repair in War Veterans: A Pmodel and Intervention Strategy. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(8), 695-706 (2009). [13] Drescher KD & Foy DW & Kelly C & Leshner A & Schutz K & Litz B. An Exploration of the Viability and Usefulness of the Construct of Moral Injury in War Veterans. Traumatology, 17(1), 8-13 (2011). [14] Dombo EA & Gray C & Early BP. The Trauma of Moral Injury: Beyond the Battlefield. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 32(3), 197-210 (2013). [15] Kim C. A Study on the Disaster Body Response Measurement System Using VR. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 6(3), 54-63 (2021). [Article] [16] Lin K & Xia F & Li C & Wang D & Humar I. Emotion-aware System Design for the Battlefield Environment. Information Fusion, 47, 102-110 (2019). [17] Hourani L & Tueller S & Kizakevich P & Strange L & Lewis G & Weimer B & Morgan J & Cooney D & Nelson J. Effect of Stress Inoculation Training with Relaxation Breathing on Perceived Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Military: A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Stress Management, 25(1), 124-136 (2018). [18] Jung B. Development of Evaluative Indicator of Safety Education for Korea Army. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 3(1), 25-31 (2018). [Article] [19] Baek S. A Study on the Improvement of Explosion Test on Blast-proof Door. International Journal of Military Affairs, 6(2), 11-20 (2021). [Article] [20] Basu A & Aydin A. A Method for Normalization of Schmidt Hammer Rebound Values. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41(7), 1211-1214 (2004). [21] Brencich A & Cassini G & Pera D & Riotto G. Calibration and Reliability of the Rebound(Schmidt) Hammer Test. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 1(3), 66-78 (2013). [22] Kirkman E & Watts S. Characterization of the Response to Primary Blast Injury. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1562), 286-290 (2011). [23] Malhotra A & Carson D & McFadden S. Blast Pressure Leakage into Buildings and Effects on Humans. Procedia Engineering, 210, 386-392 (2017). [24] Mackenzie IM & Tunnicliffe B. Blast Injuries to the Lung: Epidemiology and Management. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1562), 295-299 (2011). [25] Smith JE. The Epidemiology of Blast Lung Injury during Recent Military Conflicts: A Retrospective Database Review of Cases Presenting to Deployed Military Hospitals, 2003-2009. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1562), 291-294 (2011). [26] Aboudara M & Mahoney PF & Hicks B & Cuadrado D. Primary Blast Lung Injury at a NATO Role 3 Hospital. British Medical Journal: Military Health, 160(2), 161-166 (2014). [30] Gebbeken N & Döge T. Explosion Protection-architectural Design, Urban Planning and Landscape Planning. International Journal of Protective Structures, 1(1), 1-21 (2010). [31] Barakat M & Hetherington JG & Autodyn. Architectural Approach to Reducing Blast Effects on Structures. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-structures and Buildings, 134(4), 333-343 (1999). [33] Lee JJ & Yun HS & Cho YJ & Park JH. Empirical Analysis of a Steam Explosion in a Slag Yard based on a Field Investigation and 3D Explosion Damage Simulation. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 136, 126-135 (2020). [34] Raj ST & Silan SL & Devgan VK. Structural Damage Analysis of Explosive Testing Experimental Bay Using Hexdam Modelling Software. Procedia Structural Integrity, 14, 395-402 (2019). [28] Kim S & Oh K & Baek S & Lee J & Park Y & Baek J. Protective Structural Engineering. Cheong Moon Gak (2013). [29] Krauthammer T. Modern Protective Structures. CRC (2008). [27] Department of Defense. MIL-STD-1474D, Military Standard: Design Criteria Standard, Noise Limits (1997). [32] (2021). [35] Raj ST & Silan SL & Kamal J. Hazard Assessment Modelling for the Target End Control Room of Penta Track Dynamic Trial Facility. International Conference on Range Technology (2019). ? Source:
  • A Brief Study on the Legitimacy of the National Security Act Examined through the Case of Cheongju SPY RING
    By. Hoyeun Youn
    Abstract Purpose: In this study, the Cheongju Spy Ring incident offers a clear answer for the question of “Are there still spies?” in some parts of our society. It confirms the fact that North Korea is continuously carrying out espionage in South Korea regardless of the situation between the North and South Koreas. Hence, it is intended to discuss the legitimacy of the National Security Act, which is faced with the possibility of repealment, and the ripple effect of its repealment via an actual analysis of the Cheongju Spy Ring incident. Method: This study examines the legitimacy of the National Security Act and its ripple effects when it is repealed by analyzing the Cheongju Spy Ring incident. It will examine the differences of opinion on the controversy over the existence of the National Security Act to date. The content analytical method and the literature analytical method were implemented comprehensively and specifically for the contents of various aspects of the incident. Results: Concerning the enactment and repealment of the National Security Act, it is necessary to respond with a clear awareness from the perspective of national security and the maintenance and development of the liberal democratic system. The National Security Act has the purpose to guarantee the people's freedom and human rights by restricting anti-state activities which undermine the national security, not anti-unification-anti-democratic-anti-civil evil laws as North Korea claims. Furthermore, as evident in foreign cases, it can learned that the law is by no means a strong law. Conclusion: In conclusion, when the National Security Act is repealed, then first, from the security and military perspective, it would be impossible to punish the North Korean spies and the anti-state activists. Second, in terms of the political aspect, political instability will be aggravated by the conflicts between the ruling party pushing for the repealment of the National Security Act and the opposition party opposing thereto, which will further lead to the political instability and social disturbance. Third, in terms of the social aspect, the conflicts between the left and the right wings over the enactment and repealment of the National Security Act will intensify, and the division of public opinion and social unrest will further expand at best. Fourth, the political instability is expected given the increased conflicts among relevant departments within the government. Fifth, in terms of the inter-Korean relations, the federal unification drive after the repealtment of the National Security Act by the North will be a prerequisite for improving the inter-Korean relations, thereby growing the pressure on South Korea. Ultimately, the repealment of the National Security Act will undermine the constitutional system of the Republic of Korea by threatening and destroying not only the security of the Republic of Korea but also the basic order of liberal democracy in the political, economic, and social areas. [Keywords] Cheongju Spy Ring, National Security Act, National Security, Anti-Government Organization, Spy in South Korea References [8] Kim HJ. Proposals for the Revision of Laws to Execute Punishment on Spies of Foreign Nationality. Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Law Review, 40(1), 61-80 (2016). [15] Youn JO. The First Incident of the People’s Revolutionary Party and Do Ye-jong’s Activities. Daegu Sahak, 133, 315-357 (2018). [18] Huh BS. Representation of the Divided Diaspora and Zainichi Korean Spies. Journal of Dong-ak Language and Literature, 73, 19-141 (2017). [19] Choi JD. Corona Pandemic Period, Changes in the International Order and Russia’s Diplomatic Strategies: Focusing on Sino-Russian, U.S.-Russian Relations. Journal of Eurasian Studies, 44(3), 49-85 (2020). [23] Yoon HS. Strengthening the Capacity of Law Enforcement Agency in Line with the New Security Situation. International Journal of Justice & Law, 1(1), 1-6 (2016). [Article] [24] Lee HJ. Review on National Security Oriented Judicial System of Republic of Korea. International Journal of Justice & Law, 1(1), 18-24 (2016). [Article] [25] Yang JC & Lee KM. Review of Trend Analysis of Terrorism and Korea's Implications. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 5(1), 40-47 (2020).  [Article] [26] Kim TM & Park HY. Characteristics of Legal System Related to Security in Republic of Korea. International Journal of Protection & Investigation, 2(1), 25-32 (2017). [Article] [27] Jo SG. The Policies of South Korea's Counter Intelligence Agency on North Korea's Espionage Activities in South Korea. International Journal of Protection, Security & Investigation, 3(2), 30-35 (2018). [Article] [28] Hoh IT. Justification for Repealing the National Security Act. Korean Journal of Criminology, 16(1), 237-274 (2004). [29] Kim YK. T Factors Influencing on Public Attitude about Maintenance or Abolition of National Security Law. Humanities, Social Sciences and Technology Convergence Society, 8(11), 513-522 (2018). [30] Park WS. A Study on the Improvement System of National Counter-intelligence Activities. International Journal of Military Affairs, 6(1), 45-58 (2021). [Article] [31] Park SS. A Study on the Abuse and Interpretation of the Article(7) of National Security Act. The Joumal of Law, 21(4), 1-30 (2013). [32] Lee KS. Stop the Conspiracy to Open and Close the National Security Act: The Focus of the Strategy for Redemption against South Korea is the Abolition of the Security Law and the Withdrawal of U.S. Forces. Monthly Korea Forum, 116(1), 94-101 (1999). [33] Son DK. The 1st East-Asia International Symposium -Reforms of Criminal Justice System: The Arranging Measures of the Substantial Criminal Acts on the Ideological Offender-. Korean Journal of Comparative Criminal Law, 8(1), 245-265 (2006). [34] Lee HJ. Special lssue: Critical lssues in the So-called Wangjaesan Case; Application of the Hearsay Rule in the Cases of National Security Law. Democracy Law Research Society, 49, 41-70 (2012). [35] Chae SJ. A Study on the Necessity of Maintaining National Security Law. Dankook Law Review, 41(3), 91-123 (2017). [36] Chae SJ. A Study on the Policy Path Change in the National Security Law according to the Historical Institutionalism. Journal of Northeast Asian Studies, 22(2), 239-261 (2017). [37] Jo SG. Terrorism Crisis on Northeast Asia. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(1), 35-42 (2020).  [Article] [38] Jhe SH. The Consept and Scope of Anti-state Organization under the Korean National Security Law. Korean Lawyers Association, 59(8), 5-52 (2010). [39] Khae SJ. A Study on the Policy Path Change in the National Security Law according to the Historical Institutionalism. Korea Northeast Asian Rice Federation, 22(2), 239-261 (2017). [40] Jung KS. Articles: Internationalization of Human Rights Campaign against the National Security Law: It`s Accomplishments and Further Tasks. Democratic Law, 33, 199-227 (2007). [41] Oh DS. Democracy and Human Rights in Prof. Song Du-yul Case; The Current Issues on the NSL and the Constitutionality of the Law for the NSL Abolition. Democratic Law, 26, 105-130 (2004). [42] Kim TS. Validity of Security Law Application to the 3.1(March 1st) Movement. Korean Journal of Comparative Criminal Law, 21(1), 235-256 (2019). [43] Kim HJ. 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  • Crime Prevention by Strengthening REGULATIONS on Drunk Driving
    By. Kwanghyun Park
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to discuss the countermeasures against drunk driving regulations in terms of crime prevention because drunk driving is not a simple traffic crime but a potential murder. One methodology would be to raise the punishment for drunk driving and to improve the public's awareness and conduct regular traffic accident prevention education so that fundamental problems can be solved and have high efficiency and normative power. In Korea, the ‘Act on the Aggravated Punishment of Specific Crimes, etc.’ and ‘Road Traffic Act’ were amended in Korea following the case of 'Yoon Chang-ho', who died in a drunk driving accident in 2018. Drunk driving is a very dangerous behavior, as it can endanger your life as well as the lives of others. Even if an accident does not occur, such an act is a violation of the Road Traffic Act and therefore carries criminal responsibility. In terms of general crime prevention, the penalties for drunk driving are becoming stricter than in the past. In the improved system, even if the blood alcohol level is 0.03% or more and less than 0.08, imprisonment for not more than one year or a fine of not more than 5 million won is imposed. In the case of two or more violations of the strengthened regulations, imprisonment for not less than 2 years and not more than 5 years, or a fine of not less than 10 million won and not more than 20 million won. What used to be a three-out was changed to a two-out for drunk driving. However on November 25, 2021, the Constitutional Court ruled that the provisions of the Road Traffic Act, which required uniform and aggravated punishments for drunk driving more than twice, were against the Constitution(Constitutional Court 2021.11.25, 2019Hunba 446, etc.). In addition, if you injure a person while driving, you will be punished by imprisonment for not less than 1 year and not more than 15 years in prison, or a fine of not less than 10 million won to not more than 30 million won(Before the amendment, in case of death while driving under the influence of alcohol, he was sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of more than one year). Drunk driving accidents can lead to criminal punishment, administrative sanctions, and even civil lawsuits. Keep in mind that drunk driving can be a potential killer on the road. Even if you didn't harm anyone, just drinking and driving can be a big hit in society. Method: Injuries and deaths due to drunk driving are on the rise. As a countermeasure against this, the standards and level of punishment for drunk driving are being strengthened. First, let's look at the legal punishment for drunk driving through the laws related to drunk driving. Second, we examine the severity of the damage caused by drunk driving through statistics such as drunk driving accidents, injuries, and deaths in current Korean society. Third, as a comparative legal review, by examining foreign laws on drunk driving accidents, matters to be referred to in Korean laws and regulations are reviewed. Fourth, I would like to make a legislative proposal by reviewing the problems and improvement plans of the drunk driving legal system. Previous studies on drunk driving have mainly focused on strengthening the punishment for drunk driving. This study intends to review the general crime prevention aspect by not only strengthening punishment but also changing the public's perception through education. Results: Drunk driving affects not only drunk drivers, but also others and society. It is necessary to keep in mind that drunk driving is a potential homicide, and the prohibition of drunk driving should be strengthened. In addition, if the general prevention effect can be successfully established and nudged against the offenses of drunk drivers, social costs can be reduced. Conclusion: For drunk driving, both the ‘external motivation’ such as punishment, as well as the ‘intrinsic motivation’ to act in compliance with the norm must be activated. To this end, it is necessary to raise awareness that drunk driving must be caught and punished. The certainty of punishment has a positive effect on crime deterrence. Also, in the case of self-driving cars in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, there are no regulations for drunk drivers, so a review should be carried out. [Keywords] Drunk Driving, Crime Prevention, Road Traffic Act, Blood Alcohol Concentration, Criminal Liability References [1] Park K. Legal Countermeasures against Hate Speech. Regulations, 6(2), 16-25 (2021). [Article] [2] Lee S & Beak S & Jo S. A Study on Role Conflict of Korean Security Police -Focusing on Working Period-. Regulations, 6(1), 43-54 (2021). [Article] [3] Kim H. A Study on Crime Prevention and Policing in Korea’s Urban Regeneration. International Journal of Police and Policing, 3(2), 6-12 (2018).  [Article] [5] Kim H. A Study on an Autonomous Committee for Countermeasures against School Violence for Crime Prevention. International Journal of Criminal Study, 4(1), 7-13 (2019). [Article] [7] Kim JG. A Comparative Study on Implied Consent Law in the US and Crime of Refusal to Take a Breath Test in Korea -Focusing on Constitutionality-. Study on the American Constitution, 30(3), 53-82 (2019). [8] Kwon BW. Prerequisite Conditions for Drink-driving Punishment to be Effectively Enforced as a Social Norm: Lessons from Statistical Analysis and Behavioral Economics. Korean Journal of Law and Economics, 17(1), 55-136 (2020). [9] Park CK. Reasonable Countermeasure on Sobriety Test Disobedience Offense Application. Korean Criminological Review, 22(3), 139-173 (2011). [10] Kim JK. A Study on the Traffic Crime Handling System in the United States. Chonbuk Law Review, 62, 151-179 (2020). [11] Kim SH. A Study on the Effectiveness of the Cognitive-action Program for Drunk Drivers. Mental Health & Social Work, 11, 157-183 (2004). [15] Becker GS. Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76(2), 169-217 (1968). [16] Jung CW. A Study on DWI(Driving While Intoxicated) Deterrence through Categorizing Factors and Analysing Their Impacts to the Sentencing of DWI Offending. The Journal of Police Science 12(3), 260-261 (2012). [17] Yoon YS. A Critical Review on the Crime of Drunken Driving -Focused on the Legislative Improvement Alternatives-. Dong-a Law Review, 84, 147-176 (2019). [18] Oh S. A Study on Response System against Sexual Violence Crime Via IOT-based Smart Devices. International Journal of Police and Policing, 5(1), 30-38 (2020). [Article] [19] Kim HG. Legal Issues Regarding the Introduction of an Alcohol Ignition Interlock Program. Seoul Law Review, 26(4), 187-222 (2019). [20] Park YS. The Depression Effects of Additional Punishment for Habitual Drunk Drivers on Traffic Accidents. Korean Police Studies Review, 16(3), 133-134 (2017). [21] Lee JD & Lim YS. A Study on the Operation and Improvement of Citizen Patrol for Voluntary Crime Prevention. Korean Police Studies Review, 10(2), 177-198 (2011). [22] Jung SJ. A Study on Assuring the Effectiveness of Volunteer Patrol Activities. The Korean Association of Police Science Review, 10(2), 177-198 (2011). [23] Hwang HR. A Study of Law Policy for Police Volunteer Enactment. Hanyang Law Review, 36, 435-460 (2011). [24] Kim DS. A Study on the Autonomous Vehicles in Terms of the Criminal Law. Seoul Law Review, 28(1), 283-315 (2020). [25] Nam J. Measures to Revitalize Resident Participation in the Self-governing Police System. Regulations, 6(3), 29-38 (2021). [Article] [26] Park HS. 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Chonbuk National University, Master's Thesis (2015). [13] Ryu JI. Study on Efficiency of Education/PR Program for Decrease in Drunken Driving. Yonsei University, Master's Thesis (2008). [14] Beccaria C. Dei Delitti e Delle Pene. Torrossa (2009). [4] (2017). [31] (2021). ? Source:
  • Study on Judgment Recognition of Figure Skating COACHES
    By. Sunghee Koh
    Abstract Purpose: This study is to analyze the judgment perception of the figure skating instructor, to secure trust between the judge and the director, and to provide basic data for the development plan of the figure skating event. The subject was a survey of 45 professional figure skating instructors registered as directors in the Korea Skating Federation. Method: This analysis of the perception of figure skating instructors' judgments based on gender was conducted using t-test. One-way ANOVA was carried out to identify the judge's perception according to the director's age, coaching period, coaching experience, and director level. Results: First, regarding gender, male directors were found to be more positively perceived than female directors, but the difference was not statistically significant. Second, regarding age, the scores of directors over 50 was the lowest. Third, regarding the guidance period, it was found that directors with more than 10 years of guidance received the most negative perception. Fourth, there was a statistically significant difference in the director's perception according to the coaching experience. There was a difference in the perception of fairness, reliability, and accuracy of the judge, which is a sub-factor, and the perception of judge decision was more negative for professional directors with experience in coaching national athletes than for directors with experience in coaching general sports. Fifth, there was a difference in the perception according to the level of the director. Especially the perception was the most negative for class 7-8 directors. Conclusion: As a result, it is considered that studies are needed to increase the objectivity of the judges in scoring, which depends on their subjective evaluation. [Keywords] Figure Skating, Coaches, Judgment Recognition, Subjective Evaluation, Scoring Sports References [1] Lunz M & Schumacker R. Scoring and Analysis of Performance Examinations: A Comparison of Methods and Interpretations. Journal of Outcome Measurement, 1(3), 219-238 (1997). [2] Lee T & Kwak J & Yang H & Lee H. Analysis of Reliability and Error Sources of Judges’ Rating in Rhythmic Gymnastics. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 28(2), 337-350 (2017). [3] Han K & Lee D & Yoon D & Park S. Sources of Stress and Coping Styles of Gymnastic Judges. Korean Society for the Study of Physical Education, 16(2), 181-196 (2011). [4] Park H. Wrong Decision in the Sports and Sports Justice. Journal of Korean Philosophic Society for Sport and Dance, 24(3), 69-84 (2016). [6] Ahn N. Coaching of Single Figure Skating by New Judging System. Journal of Coaching Development, 8(1), 55-64 (2006). [7] Park J & Park S. The Understanding of Referee’s Decision Factor and Improvement Way in Kundo Competition. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 14(3), 149-161 (2012). [8] Seo K. Exploration on Video Decipher for Fairness in Basketball. Journal of Korean Philosophic Society for Sport and Dance, 19(2), 37-52 (2011). [9] Lee T & Lee H & Chung J & Yang H. Analysis of Judges’ Judging in Figure Skating. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 27(4), 756-769 (2016). [10] Borman W. Exploring Upper Limits of Reliability and Validity in Job Performance Ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 134-144 (1978). [12] Oh J & Cho D. The Recognition of the Referee’s Decision in Male Gymnastics and It’s Improvement. The Korean Journal of Sport, 10(1), 13-25 (2012). [13] Kim Y. The Understanding of an Umpire’s Judgment in Fencing Competition and the Ways to Improve It. The Korean Journal of Sport, 8(2), 1-2 (2010). [14] Cho M. Influence of Judges' Decision Cognition of Hockey Players on Psychological States and Game. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 18(2), 39-348 (2009). [15] Choi J & Choi K. An Analysis on the Different Views about Judo Hantei between Referees and Players. The Korean Journal of Sport, 38(1), 698-710 (1999). [16] Oh J & Kim S. A Case Study on Judgments in Women’ Apart Gymnastics. Journal of Coaching Development, 17(3), 167-178 (2015). [17] Park J & Park S. The Understanding of Referee`s Decision Factor and Improvement Way in Kumdo Competition. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 14(3), 149-161 (2012). [18] Oh D & Lee Y. The Relationship among Perception Toward Referees, Psychological State and Exercise Continue Intention of Middle and High School Kumdo Athletes. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 20(4), 103-117 (2018). [19] Lee S & Kim J & Park J. The Effect of Self-management of Juvenile Taekwondo Breaking Athletes on Sports Competitive Anxiety. Kinesiology, 6(1), 1-9 (2021). [Article]                                       [20] Lee T & Kwak J & Yang H & Lee H. Analysis of Reliability and Error Sources of Judges’ Rating in Rhythmic Gymnastics. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 28(2), 37-350 (2017). [21] Jeon W & Kim W. Effects of Awareness of Umpire`s Judgment in Hapkido Competition on Players Performance and Psychological State. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts. 17(1), 13-29 (2015). [22] Shin h. Investigation on the Recognition of Referees on the Scoring Rules for Taekwondo Demonstration Competition. Kinesiology, 5(2), 1-11 (2020). [Article] [23] Park D. A Study on Relationships between Taekwondo Athletes' Perception of Judges' Judging and Psychology and Performance. Korea Journal of Sports Science, 16(1), 197-206 (2007). [24] Cho E & Kwon J & Cha J & Kim K. The Severity and Consistency of the Judge`s Decision in Taekwondo. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 25, 1185-1195 (2005). [26] Choi H & Kim B & Jo S. The Effect of the Sports Coaches' Professionalism on Ethical Sensitivity and Guiding Belief. Kinesiology, 6(3), 34-44 (2021). [Article] [27] Lee S & Park J. The Recognition Survey about Poomsae-coach & Player's Referee-judgement for Fairness Betterment of Taekwondo Poomsae's Referee. Journal of Korea Sport Research, 18(4), 831-842 (2007). [28] Lee K & Yoon D. Gymnasts' and Coaches' Understanding of Gymnastics Rules, and Their Satisfaction and Attribution of Scores Obtained. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 20(4), 854-864 (2009). [29] Shin J & Kim Y. Identifying the Key Elements of Judging in Synchronized Swimming: For the Purpose of Fair Decision. Asian Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 5(1), 41-55 (2017). [30] Koh S. Integral Analysis on Evaluation Criteria of Artistic Value in Figure Skating. Korea Science & Art Forum, 26, 1-11 (2016). [31] Oh Y& Kim E & Lee J. The Objectivity of the Judge's Decision in Sports Aerobics. 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The Relationship among Expertise, Teaching Belief and Job Satisfaction of Leisure Sports Instructor. Korea National Sport University, Master's Thesis (2019). [11] ISU. Special Regulations & Technical Rules. International Skating Union (2018). ? Source:
  • Exploring the Training Program for the Essential Skills of TAEKWONDO Freestyle Poomsae
    By. Mincheol Shin, Kwon Jang
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore essential technical training plans for Taekwondo freestyle Poomsae and present systematic and specialized training plans to instructors. In order to achieve this research purpose, this study was conducted using a qualitative approach. Method: The purpose of this study is to explore essential technical training plans for Taekwondo freestyle Poomsae and present systematic and specialized training plans to instructors. In order to achieve this research purpose, this study was conducted using a qualitative approach of literature review and in-depth interviews. Results: First, 1)jump side kick(Leap training using high speed, obstacle crossing training, and repetitive exercise to raise one's leaping foot to the thigh) 2)jump front kick(Training of kicking the first foot at the same time of the leap,  the snap kick training in a sitting position, and the training to hit a target) 3)rotating kick(Stride training, holding the axis of rotation training, two-way rotation training) 4)consecutive sparring kick(Step training using a jump rope, repeating knee raising training, and various tactical training in actual sparring competitions) 5)acrobatic movements(Handstand training and training for using the strength of the upper body with push-ups). Second, as training for injury prevention, leap, and landing, strength exercises(squats, conventional deadlift, leg press) to improve posture balance and irregular physical training that changes heart rate to check the heart rate of actual competition situations are to be conducted. Third, efforts should be made to create a stable training environment for freestyle Poomsae training by providing equipment and tools such as air mats and landing mats for the athletes to stably train essential skills of freestyle Poomsae. Conclusion: For each of the five essential skills of Taekwondo freestyle Poomsae, an efficient training method suitable for the characteristics of the skill is needed. In addition, players and instructors who train freestyle Poomsae need to improve their posture balance through training on high leaps and landing to prevent injuries. In addition, it is important to create a training environment suitable for the characteristics of the event for efficient training of freestyle Poomsae athletes. [Keywords] Taekwondo, Freestyle Poomsae, Essential Skills, Training Program, Poomsae Players References [2] Lee SJ & Jeon JW. Recognition and Development Direction of Poomsae Competition by Players and Leaders in Accordance with the Introduction of Taekwondo Freestyle Poomsae. Taekwondo Journal of Kukkiwon, 8(4), 357-377 (2017). [5] Sihyun Ryu. Biomechanical Analysis of Spin Kicks for Establishing the Technical Difficulty of Free Style Poomsae in Taekwondo. International Journal of Martial Arts, 6(1), 66-76 (2021). [Article] [7] Jeon MW & Lim SJ & Jeon IK. A Narrative Study on Poomsae Creation Experience of Taekwondo Instructo. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Art, 15(1), 149-166 (2013). [8] Jung HD. Strategies to Promote Free Style Poomsae Competition in Taekwondo. Journal of the World Society of Taekwondo Culture, 11, 55-67 (2015). [9] Ahn JY. Exploration of Training Measures for Improving Freestyle Poomsae Performance in Taekwondo. Journal of Martial Arts, 13(3), 241-258 (2019). [10] Yoo SH & Ryu JS & Park SK & Yoon SH. Successful Factor Analysis of 540o Dwihuryeochagi to Apply Free Style Poomsae of Taekwondo. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 23(4), 285-294 (2013). [14] Lee SK & Ryu H. Analysis of Inductive Reasoning Process. Journal of Korea Society of Educational Studies in Mathematics, 14(1), 85-107 (2012). [15] Heo YS & Jang K & Park JH. Effects of Lower Body Muscle Exercise over 8 Weeks on Performance of Free Poomsae Athletes. The Korea Free of Medcine & Therapy Science, 12(1), 63-73 (2020). [17] Lee SJ & Jeoung JH. Comparative Analysis of Taekwondo Poomsae Professional Gym and High School Team Performance Factors. International Journal of Martial Arts, 6(1), 46-54 (2020). [Article] [18] Kim JS & Cheon WK & Park JS. Exploring the Motives of College Taekwondo Poomsae Athletes for Participating in the Poomsae Competitions. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(1), 1-13 (2020). [Article] [19] Lee SJ & Kim JS & Park JS. The Effect of Self-management of Juvenile Taekwondo Breaking Athletes on Sports Competitive Anxiety. Kinesiology, 6(1), 1-9 (2021). [Article] [20] Jang DE & Ahn YK. Aesthetical Exploration on Acrobatic Techniques in Taekwondo Demonstration. The Korean Journal of Physical Education, 56(1), 25-42 (2017). [21] Park JS. The Effect of Functional Training on the Physical Strength Factor of Elite Taekwondo Athletes. Kinesiology, 4(1), 1-7 (2019). [Article] [22] Park SU. Analysis and Research on Occurrence of Safety Accident in Taekwondo Training Center in Korea. International Journal of Sport, 1(2), 6-9 (2016). [Article] [1] Jang K. A Study on the History of Korean Taekwondo Game. Woosuk University, Doctoral Thesis (2010). [3] Cho SY. An Exploration of Training Method for Improvement of Athletic Performance of Taekwondo Free-poomsae Players. Yongin University, Master’s Thesis (2020). [6] Kim DY. A Study on the Problems of Taekwondo Freestyle Poomsae Game. Chosun University, Master’s Thesis (2019). [16] Shin HC. Comparison of Kinetic Characteristics of Taekwondo Jumping Front kick(Run up, Take Off and Kicking) according to Skill Levels. Korea University, Doctoral Thesis (2016). [11] Kang SJ. Physical Education Research Methods. History of Education in the 21st Century (1994). [12] Yoo JA. How to Write a Qualitative Research Thesis in Physical Education. Rainbow Temple (2004). [13] Kim YC. Qualitative Research MethodologyⅠ. Methods. Academy (2013). [4] (2021). ?Source:
  • The Effect of University Student’s Perception of Rapport with Professors on Learning Participation and Satisfaction: Focused..
    By. Sungwoo Sim, Seulgi Park, Sanghyuk Moon
    Abstract Purpose: The pandemic situation has caused a variety of changes in many areas. In the field of education, real communication of emotion with students has become an issue. The purpose of this study is to examine the causal effect of rapport between professors and students, learning participation and satisfaction in online class under COVID-19 pandemic situation. Method: In order to conduct the research, the online survey was performed for two years university students in Seoul, and three hypotheses were proposed to identify the relationships among three variables such as rapport, participation and learning satisfaction. A total of 207 questionnaires were used for analysis. SPSS 21.0 was used to conduct analysis for hypothesis verification, and the demographic information of the sample was organized by frequency analysis. Also, exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were conducted to confirm the validity and reliability of each concept measurement item. Lastly, regression analysis was used to examine them. Results: The results of analyses are follows. First, rapport influenced positively learning participation. Second, rapport influenced positively learning satisfaction. Third, learning participation influenced positively learning satisfaction. This result was found to be the same as that of previous studies about learning participation and learning satisfaction. Conclusion: ‘Although it is a study only for two-year college students in Seoul, it has been recognized that students' participation in learning is a major leading variable in improving learning satisfaction. In this study, building rapport between professors and students is an important factor to improve the quality of online class. Hence, professors should focus on how to build rapport effectively and universities should provide practical supports and programs to develop their skills to improve rapport level. It can have a positive effect on students' satisfaction with the university and their academic achievement in the long term. [Keywords] Rapport, Learning Participation, Learning Satisfaction, Online Class, COVID-19 References [3] Kim WS & Choi HB. Analysis of Class Adaptation and Satisfaction under Untact Educational Environment Caused by Covid-19: Handong Global University Case. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 12(5), 109-119 (2021). [4] Kim HN & Kam SW. The Effect of Lecture Satisfaction for Non-face-to-face Video Lessons on the Learning Effect and Study on the Mediating Effect of Self-efficacy for Covid-19 in South Korea. The Journal of Student-centered Curriculum and Instruction, 21(1), 363-387 (2020). [5] Kwon SH & Ryu HS. In Covid-19, a Study on the Effects of Professor and Student Interaction, Self-directed Learning, and Learning Participation on Learning Satisfaction in Untact Lecture. Journal of Student-centered Curriculum and Instruction, 21(11), 87-97 (2021). [6] Lee YH & Park YJ & Yoon JH. Exploring the “Types” through Case Analysis on Operation of Distance Education in Universities Responding to Covid-19. The Journal of Yeolin Education, 28(3), 211-234 (2020). [7] Tickle-Degnen, L & Rosenthal, R. The Nature of Rapport and Its Nonverbal Correlates. Psychological Inquiry, 1(4), 285-293 (1990). [8] Oh SK & Yoon HH. A Study on the Relationship among Rapport, Customer Participation Behavior, Customer Citizenship Behavior, and Customer Satisfactions in Restaurants. Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea, 20(3), 189-214 (2017). [9] Gremler DD & Gwinner KP. Rapport-building Behaviors Used by Retail Employees. Journal of Retailing, 84(3), 308-324 (2008). [10] Delcourt C & Gremler DD & Riel AC & Birgelen MV. Effects of Perceived Employee Emotional Competence on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: The Mediating Role of Rapport. Journal of Service Management, 24(1), 5-24 (2013). [11] Price B. Developing Patient Rapport, Trust and Therapeutic Relationships. Nursing Standard, 31(50), 52-63 (2017). [12] Joe GW & Simpson DD & Dansereau DF & Rowan-Szal GA. Relationships between Counseling Rapport and Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes. Psychiatric Services, 52(9), 1223-1229 (2001). [13] Frisby BN & Martin MM. Professor-student and Student-student Rapport in the Classroom. Communication Education, 59(2), 146-164 (2010). [14] Wilson JH & Ryan RG & Pugh JL. Professor-student Rapport Scale Predicts Student Outcomes. Teaching of Psychology, 37(4), 246-251 (2010). [15] DeWitt T & Brady MK. Rethinking Service Recovery Strategies: The Effect of Rapport on Consumer Responses to Service Failure. Journal of Service Research, 6(2), 193-207 (2003). [16] Han HJ & Yoon YS. The Effect of Convention Center Employees’ Rapport on Competency Recognition, Relationship Quality and Long-term Transaction Orientation. Tourism Research, 25 (2), 731-753 (2021). [17] Kim GM & Park BM & Lim SK. A Study of the Impact Hotel Employees’ Rapport on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Tourism and Leisure Research, 32(5), 203-224 (2020). [18] Lee JY & Kim HJ. A Study on the Structural Relationships among Flight Attendants’ Human Services, Rapport, and Intentions to Reuse. Korean Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, 29(6), 93-108 (2020). [19] Yoon MH & Kim JS & Kim JH. Effects of Emotional Display and Authenticity on Relationship Quality: A Mediating Role of Rapport in Service Delivery. Korean Management Review, 39(6), 1391-1423 (2010). [20] Jeong MG & Choi HS & Lee HY. The Effect of Lecturer’s Roles on Learning Outcomes in University Education: Focused on the Role of Instructional Design and Learning Promotion. Journal of Korea Service Management Society, 17(1), 281-306 (2016). [21] Hong SY & Ryu YJ. Factors Affecting College Students’ Learning Outcomes in non Face-to-face Environment during Covid-19 Pandemic. Journal of Educational Technology, 36(3), 957-989 (2020). [22] Kim EH & Lee JM. An Analysis of the Difference in Academic Achievement by Learning Participation Activities: Focused on the Smart Class of a University, which is a Non-face-to-face Class due to Covid-19. The Journal of Business Education, 34(6), 1-21 (2020). [23] Kim EK & Cha BJ. Analysis of Student Engagement according to Participation of Freshman Seminar. Korean Journal of General Education, 12(4), 177-198 (2018). [24] Lee JE & Yu BM & Park HJ. The Influence of the Presence Perceived by Students and Participation Motivation on Satisfaction in Distance Education. Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development, 22(2), 233-243 (2015). [25] Lee JY. Application and Satisfaction Study of Medua-based Teaching & Learning Method in Beauty Education: Focusing on Flipped Learning Using Google Classroom. Public Value, 6(1), 92-105 (2021). [Article] [26] Choi JO & Oh SN & Cho MS. University Students’ Learning Behavior, Online Learning Satisfaction, University Satisfaction, and Emotional Difficulties according to ADHD Tendencies and Gender in Covid-19 Crisis. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 6(1), 51-67 (2021). [Article] [27] Kim ME & Kim MK & Oh YI & Jung SY. The Effect of Online Substitution Class Caused by Coronavirus(Covid-19) on the Learning Motivation, Professor-Student Interaction, and Class Satisfaction of Nursing Students. Journal of Student-centered Curriculum and Instruction, 21(11), 87-97 (2021). [28] Lee IS. Effect of Self-efficacy, Self-regulated Learning Ability, Student Participation on On-line Class Satisfaction of Nursing Students. Journal of the Korean Society for Multicultural Health, 11(1), 47-55 (2021). [29] Kim YH. Virtual Academic Experience of College Students Due to Covid-19. Journal of the Korea Academia-industrial Cooperation Society, 21(12), 278-290 (2020). [30] Kang YD. A Study on Development of Interactive Communication Education Model for Creative Convergence in Public Value. Public Value, 6(3), 61-69(2021). [Article] [31] Kim JN. A Case Study of the Flipped Learning based on Google Classroom -Focused on the Japanese Service Practical Conversation-. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 5(2), 21-29 (2020). [Article] [32] Jeong EI. Exploring the Factors That Influence College Students' Class Participation: Focus on Autonomy Support, Academic Self-efficacy, and Task Value. Journal of Education Method Research, 24(2), 355-378 (2012). [33]Choi HS & Kim BC & Jo SG. The Effect of the Youth's Generativity Following Their Participation in Martial Arts Training on Social Adaptation and Social Happiness. International Journal of Martial Arts, 6(3), 23-35 (2021).[Article] [34] Song YH. The Influence of Professor’s Non-verbal Communication on College Student’s Emotional Presence, Rapport and Learning Satisfaction. 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  • The Effect of Academic Burnout of Elementary School Students on the Smartphone Game Addiction CRISIS: Mediating Effects of..
    By. Jinoh Choi
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and understand the effect of academic burnout of elementary school students on the smartphone game addiction and investigate as to what mediating effects of anxiety and ADHD tendency have in this process. Method: A survey was conducted targeting 654 elementary school students from two elementary schools in the capital area, and the levels of academic burnout, anxiety, ADHD tendency, and smartphone game addiction were surveyed. The collected data were analyzed based on the structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: The results were as follows. First, the academic burnout turned out to directly or indirectly increase the smartphone game addiction. Second, anxiety turned out to indirectly increase the smartphone game addiction, while the ADHD tendency directly increased the smartphone game addiction. Third, three pathways of academic burnout on the smartphone game addiction were verified, where the direct pathway of 'academic burnout → smartphone game addiction' and the two indirect pathways of ‘academic burnout → ADHD tendency, → smartphone game addiction’ and ‘academic burnout → anxiety → ADHD tendency → smartphone game addiction’ turned out to be significant. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that in order to prevent the smartphone game addiction of the elementary school students, the intervention for academic and emotional problems such as academic burnout, anxiety, and ADHD tendency ought to be conducted together. [Keywords] Academic Burnout, Anxiety, ADHD Tendency, Smartphone Game Addiction References [1] Lee S & Han S. Preceding Factors for Life Satisfaction of University Students Majoring in Aviation Service in the Covid-19 Disaster: Social Environment in the Classroom, Grit. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 6(3), 64-74 (2021). 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The relationships among Smartphone Use, Mental Health and Physical Health -Focusing on Smartphone Users' Attitudes-. Journal of Digital Convergence, 14(3), 483-488 (2016). [10] Sohn E & Choi E & Kong M. The Mediating Effect of Resilience in the Impact on the Mental Health of Upper Elementary School Students' Smart Phone Addiction Risk. Journal of Rehabilitation Psychology, 23(2), 439-457 (2016). [11] Choi D. Physical Activity Level, Sleep Quality, Attention Control and Self-regulated Learning along to Smartphone Addiction among College Students. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, 16(1), 429-437 (2015). [12] Jung I & Kim J. Effects of Academic Stress and Academic Burnout on Smartphone Addiction in Junior High School Students. The Korean Journal of Community Living Science, 28(2), 289-300 (2017). [13] Jang J & Kim D & Park Y. The Study on Effect of Adolescent's Smart-phone Addiction related to Academic Stress. Journal of School Social Work, 37, 67-89 (2017). 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The Effects of Children's Executive Function Impairments and ADHD Symptoms on the Issue of Smart Phone Addiction. Korean Journal of Play Therapy, 17(1), 17-35 (2014). [20] Choi J. Analysis of Influence of Smart Phone Addiction Practice on ADHD Symptoms of Elementary School Students. Crisisonomy, 10(5), 159-178 (2014). [21] Ryu J & Kim Y. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms and Smartphone Addiction among University Students With a Focus on the Mediating Role of Stress Coping Strategies. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 28(2), 563-578 (2016). [24] Kim K & Won H & Lee J & Kim K. Standardization Study of Symptom Check List-90 in Korea I: Characteristics of Normal Responses. Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 17(4), 449-458 (1978). [25] Choi J. ADHD Symptoms and Off- and On-line Bullying Victimization of Elementary School Students. The Journal of Special Children Education, 14(3), 191-210 (2012). [26] Zentall SS & Tom-Wright K & Lee J. Psychostimulant and Sensory Stimulation Interventions that Target the Reading and Math Deficits of Students with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(4), 308-329 (2013). [27] Burnette JL & Babij AD & Oddo LE & Knouse LE. Self-regulation Mindsets: Relationship to Coping, Executive Functioning, and ADHD. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 39(2), 101-116 (2020). [28] Dirlikov B & Rosch KS & Crocetti D & Denckla MB & Mahone EM & Mostofsky SH. Distinct Frontal Lobe Morphology in Girls and Boys with ADHD. Neuroimage: Clinical, 7, 222-229 (2015). [30] Pliszka SR. Effect of Anxiety on Cognition, Behavior, and Stimulant Response in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(6), 882-887 (1989). [31] Schatz DB & Rostain AL. ADHD with Comorbid Anxiety: A Review of the Current Literature. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10(2), 141-149 (2006). [32] Jang Y & Jeong S. 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