Articles 60
  • Nursing Ethical Considerations in the AI-Based Technologies
    By. Myoungryu Kim, Boksil Hong
    Abstract Purpose: As artificial intelligence(AI) has currently used in many ways related to nurses, there is an ultimate need to consider the ethical values of AI in healthcare. Thus, the present study first investigates several types of AI-based technologies and robotics applied to nursing, such as supportive, cooperative, and collaborative robots. Moreover, several ethical guidelines and requirements for AI, ethical issues and concerns of AI, especially nursing ethical considerations, are explored based on the principles of biomedical ethics and the nursing code of ethics. Method: We searched for existing scientific literature using the keywords “AI or Robot or Nurses”, “AI or Robot and Ethics” in PubMed until March 2022. Next, we reviewed the articles related to ethical issues and considerations in AI-based technologies, especially in the field of healthcare. In addition, a web-based search about robotics in nursing was conducted to find out their specific roles. Results: The direction of ethical discussion of AI has changed from Roboethics, which emphasizes robot’s behavior and the responsibility of robots, to ethics for humans, such as developers and users. There are many ways AI is helping to overcome health care challenges, such as diagnosis, precision medicine, and prediction models. For the safety of human-robot interaction, ethics of caring need to be discussed in close proximity for nurses, patients, or both. Therefore, AI needs to consider patient safety first, do no harm and aggravate the patient’s condition, sufficiently provide to treat diseases and improve patients’ health conditions, and the service needs to be distributed equally without prejudice and discrimination regardless of medical problems. Conclusion: As AI has incredible potential to empower people and widely benefit current and future generations, AI ethics needs to be further discussed in a direction in harmony with the development of related industries. Nurses should understand AI applications and their implications for nursing research and practice to improve patient care and clinical outcome. In addition, careful ethical considerations and engagement with nurses in implementing and evaluating AI-based technologies in healthcare are critical to the best clinical decisions and developing reliable innovations. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence(AI), Roboethics, Biomedical Ethics, Morality, Nursing Codes of Ethics References [1] Kourou K & Exarchos KP & Papaloukas C & Sakaloglou P & Exarchos T & Fotiadis DI. Applied Machine Learning in Cancer Research: A Systematic Review for Patient Diagnosis, Classification and Prognosis. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 19, 5546-5555 (2021). [2] Lee A. The Effect of Artificial Intelligence Literacy Education on University Student’s Ethical Consciousness of Artificial Intelligence. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(3), 52-61 (2021). [Read More] [3] Li Y & Park G. AI Ethics and Privacy Right. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 27-33 (2020). [Read More] [4] Park G & Kim H & Li Y. Virtue for Post Covid-19 and AI Technology. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 8-18 (2020). [Read More] [5] Li Y & Cho H & Park G. The Advent of AI and Its Some Implications to Military Affairs. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(1), 38-47 (2020). [Read More] [6] Kim T & Park G & Seo E. IR4.0 and Ethical Tasks of AI. Robotics & AI Ethics, 4(2), 6-13 (2019). [Read More] [7] Stokes F & Pamer A. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Nursing: Ethics of Caring as a Guide to Dividing Tasks Between AI and Humans. Nursing Philosophy, 4, 212306 (2020). [8] Gerich H & Moen H & Block LJ & Chu CH & DeForest H & Hobensack M & Michalowski M & Mitchell J & Nibber R & Olalia MA & Pruinelli L & Ronquillo CE & Topaz M & Peltonen L-M. Artificial Intelligence-based Technologies in Nursing: A Scoping Literature Review of the Evidence. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 127, 104153 (2022). [10] Langman S & Capicotto N & Maddahi Y & Zareinia K. Roboethics Principles and Policies in Europe and North America. SN Applied Sciences, 3, 857-857 (2021). [13] Moon A & Rismani S & Van der Loos HFM. Ethics of Corporeal, Co-present Robots as Agents of Influence: A Review. Current Robotics Reports, 2, 223-229 (2021). [15] Murphy R & Woods DD. Beyond Asimov: The Three Laws of Responsible Robotics. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 24(4), 14-20 (2009). [16] Lee WH & Park JW & Kim WH & Lee HS & Chung MJ. Robot’s Motivational Emotion Model with Value Effectiveness for Social Human and Robot Interaction. Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, 20(5), 503-512 (2014). [17] Tzafestas SG. Roboethics: Fundamental Concepts and Future Prospects. Information, 9(6), 148-148 (2018). [24] Agraz CN & Pfingsthorn M & Gliesche P & Eichelberg M & Hein A. A Survey of Robotic Systems for Nursing Care. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 9(832248), 503-512 (2014). [25] Zhang T & Zhu B & Lee L & Kaber D. Service Robot Anthropomorphism and Interface Design for Emotion in Human-robot Interaction. IEEE Xplore, n10221214, 674-679 (2008). [35] Graf B & Reiser U & Hagele M & Mauz K & Klein P. Robotic Home Assistant Care-o-bot 3 -Product Vision and Innovation Platform-. IEEE Xplore, n11558311 (2009). [41] Winfield AFT & Jirotka M. Ethical Governance is Essential to Building Trust in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society a Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376, 2133-2133 (2018). [48] Robert N. How Artificial Intelligence is Changing Nursing. Nursing Management, 50(9), 30-39 (2019). [49] Celi LA & Fine B & Stone DJ. An Awakening in Medicine: The Partnership of Humanity and Intelligent Machines. The Lancet Digital Health, 1(6), 255-257 (2019). [50] Togni GD & Erikainen S & Chan S & Cunningham-Burley S. What Makes AI ‘Intelligent’ and ‘Caring’? Exploring Affect and Relationality Across Tree Sites of Intelligence and Care. Social Science & Medicine, 277, n113874 (2021). [51] Eiben AE & Ellers J & Meyne G & Nyholm S. Robot Evolution: Ethical Concerns. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 8, n744590 (2021). [52] McLennan S & Fiske A & Tigard D & Mulle R & Haddadin S & Buyx A. Embedded Ethics: A Proposal for Integrating Ethics into the Development of Medical AI. BMC Medical Ethics, 23, n6 (2022). [53] Eiben AE & Bredeche N & Hoogendoorn M & Stradner J. The Triangle of Life: Evolving Robots in Real-time and Real-space. Bioinspired Robotics, 2013, 1056-1063 (2013). [55] Varkey B. Principles of Clinical Ethics and Their Application to Practice. Medical Principles and Practice, 30(1), 17-28 (2021). [56] Maddahi Y & Klvandi M & Langman S & Capicotto N & Zareinia K. Roboethics in Covid-19: A Case Study in Dentistry. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 8, 612740 (2021). [57] Sarker S & Jamal L & Ahmed SF & Irtisam N. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare during Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 146, n103902 (2021). [58] Mowbray M. Moral Status for Malware! The Difficulty of Defining Advanced Artificial Intelligence. Cabridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 30(3), 517-528 (2021). [59] Pirni A & Balisteri M & Capasso M & Umbrello S & Merenda F. Robo Care Ethics between Autonomy and Vulnerabiity: Coupling Principles and Practices in Autonomous Systems for Care. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 6, n654298 (2021). [60] Ronquillo CE & Peltonen L-M & Pruinelli L & Chu CH & Bakken S & Beduschi A & Cato K & Hardiker N & Junger A & Michalowski M & Nyrup R & Rahimi S & Reed DN & Salakoski T & Salantera S & Walton N & Weber P & Wiegand T & Topaz M. Artificial Intelligence in Nursing: Priorities and Opportunities from an International Invitational Think-tank of the Nursing and Artificial Intelligence Leadership Collaborative. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(9), 3707-3717 (2021). [14] Asimov I. Runaround. Street & Smith (1950). [40] Haddadin S & Croft E. Physical Human-robot Interaction. Springer Handbook of Robotics (2016). [42] Pasquale F. New Laws of Robotics: Defending Human Expertise in the Age of AI. Belknap (2020). [43] Tzafestas SG. Roboethics: A Navigating Overview. Springer (2015). [54] Bostrom N. Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford University (2014). [9] (2020). [11] (2020). [12] Veruggio G. The Birth of Roboethics. IEEE International Conference on Roboethics and Automation. Workshop on Roboethics (2005). [18] htttps:// (2006). [19] (2016). [20] (2016). [21] Human Assistant Robotics in Japan. Minerva Fellowship Programme Report (2016). [22] Pearl: A mobile Robotic Assistant for the Elderly. AAAI Technical Report WS-02-02 (2002). [23] (2022). [26] (2020). [27] (2017). [28] (2009). [29] (2020). [30] (2020). [31] (2020). [32] (2020). [33] (2019). [34] (2020). [36] (2021). [37] (2014). [38] (2014). [39] (2020). [44] (2014). [45] (2020). [46] (2015). [47] (2018). ? Source:
  • Implications of Human and Psychological Trauma in the Era of the Pandemic
    By. Yeojin Lim, Jeumnam Kim
    Abstract Purpose: In the name of fear and prevention of corona infection, human society is branded as an infected individual or group. In serious infectious disease situations, the scapegoat of transferring tension and fear to some members of the community can cause dissociation and cultural trauma. The scapegoat violence, which is blamed for the expectation of collective psychological purification, lives in an era of confusion that requires a healthy alternative. Therefore, in this situation, this study aims to examine the implications of human and psychological trauma to us from a historical point of view. Method: Modern times, violence that eludes and condemns some members because of the expectation of collective psychological cleanup is living in an era of confusion that requires healthy alternatives. This study is to examine previous studies and data related to trauma and to suggest the implications of trauma phenomenon in the pandemic era. Results: We are part of a post-trauma society, as is society, where individuals and societies who have experienced violence and trauma are overwhelmed by fear. It is undoubtedly true that the Pandemic era increases the frequency and intensity of depression and anxiety in humans, as it causes “group trauma” in many people. Personal trauma is an emotional wound that begins with a shocking event that occurred to one person or a small number of people. On the other hand, collective trauma is a trauma that occurs because of the shock of society as a whole, not an individual or a small number. Trauma is widely understood as a variety of psychological and spiritual wounds in large and small forms experienced in everyday life. If this concept of broadness is premised, trauma can happen to anyone, anytime, anywhere, in various contexts of life. After the fall of mankind, constant war, natural disasters and talent, terrorism, and social oppression have left untouchable scars on many people. The core of trauma relief(therapy) is to restore the relationship through the recovery of broken communication, and it is necessary to provide in-depth support with interest at the national level. In addition, it is necessary to approach trauma from a phenomenological point of view and to make it possible to understand the victim more generally considering the sociocultural context intertwined with the complex life and experience of the victim experiencing trauma as a de-evidence paradigm. Conclusion: This study suggests implications for the meaning of social human and psychological trauma to us in the current Pandemic situation and also it is expected to be a basic foundation for in-depth papers that can lead to follow-up studies. Keywords: Trauma, Pandemic, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma Therapy, Phenomenological Approach References [2] Lim Y & Lee M. Implications of Emotional Coaching and Integrated Art Therapy Teaching Method on Leadership Education in the AI Era. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 42-49 (2020). [Read More] [5] Park GY & Lee WB & Lim YJ. Covid-19 and Some Implications to AI. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(1), 16-24 (2020). [Read More] [6] Song KJ & Lee JY. The Effect of Military Life Stress and Ego-resilience on Adjustment of Soldiers. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 1(2), 19-27 (2016). [Read More] [8] Jo SG. Terrorism Crisis on Northeast Asia. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(1), 35-42 (2020). [Read More] [12] Kim J & Lim Y. The Relationship between Self-esteem and Gratitude Tendency of University Students during the Corona-19 Era. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 6(1), 26-35 (2021). [Read More] [13] Choi J. The NLP Program Development of Intrapersonal Intelligence Enhancement for the Covid-19 Crisis Management and the Analysis of Its Effect. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 6(2), 69-78 (2021). [Read More] [14] Kays J & Robin A. Hurley & Katherine H. The Dynamic Brain: Neuroplasticity and Mental Health. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24(2), 1-12 (2012). [15] Iris K & Tatjana A & Elbert T. Structural and Functional Neuroplasticity in Relation to Traumatic Stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), 321-348 (2007). [16] Moriarty GL & Louis H & Christopher G. Understanding the God Image Through Attachment Theory. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 9(2), 43-56 (2006). [17] Nguyen L. The Ethics of Trauma: Re-traumatization in Society’s Approach to the Traumatized Subject. International Journal of T Group Psychotherapy, 61(1), 26-47 (2011). [18] Nydam RJ. Facing Cancer: The Spiritual Dangers of a Docetic Engagement of Acute Leukemia. Calvin Theological Journal, 45(2), 335-442 (2010). [19] John R. Neurobiological Effects of Trauma and Psychopharmacology. In Trauma Counseling, 59(2), 28-57 (2012). [22] No SH. Critical Review of Existing Studies on School Violence. Criminal Policy Research, 15(1), 87-118 (2004). [23] Sin HS. The Variables Affecting School Violence Types of Middle School Students. Adolescence Study, 12(4), 123-149 (2000). [24] Kim JK. Reconstruction of Historical Trauma Concept. Korean Philosophy Thought Study Society, 65, 37-54 (2013). [25] Shin TS. The Retrospective of Self-healing. Korean Language Literature, 85, 285-312 (2013). [26] Ha EH. A Study on the Literature Therapy in Historical Trauma. Korean Literary Therapy Society, 1(1), 1-12 (2016). [27] Jung JS & An HE. Combined Trauma approach to Youth School Violence. Korea Psychology Society, 20(1), 145-160 (2008). [28] Fonagy P. Early-life Trauma and the Psychogenesis and Prevention of Violence. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1036(1), 181-200 (2004). [29] Kim KB. A Proposal for Christian Psychopathology of Trauma. Bible and Theology, 81, 171-205 (2017). [30] Elyse M. Found in Him: The Joy of the Incarnation and Our Union with Christ. Wheaton Crossway, 2(5), 77-111 (2013). [11] Kim HA. Development of Adaptive Flexibility Scale for North Korean Refugees. Kyungbuk University, Doctoral Thesis (2006). [3] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association (2013). [4] Blocher, Henri. Evil and the Cross: An Analytical Look at the Problem of Pain. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic & Professional (2005). [7] Caruth, Cathy. Ed. Trauma: Explorations in Memory. Johns Hopkins University (1995). [9] Drozdek, Boris & John P. Wilson. Eds. Voices of Trauma: Treating Psychological Trauma Across Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media (2007). [10] National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention. “Childhood Trauma and Its Effect on Healthy Development.” National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention (2012). [20] Bessel VK. The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. Viking (2014). 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  • A Reflection on the Preventive Measures Against Damages of Unlawful Fund Raising -With a Focus on the Deterrence Theory-
    By. Seungdon Yang, Kangmin Lee, Geumseok Doh
    Abstract Purpose: The economic crimes targeting an unspecified majority are beyond imagination in terms of economic development and the extent of their damages incurred. Among the typical examples is the crime of unlawful fund raising. Despite the continuous crackdowns and punishments at the pan-government level, it threatens the economy of the commoners. The most unlawful fund raising companies are not subject to financial supervision, yet promise to pay a fixed interest rate or high dividends several dozen times larger than the financial institutions as a bait of high returns. However, there is no source of income, and it is just a ‘Ponzi scheme’ which preserves the profits of existing investors with the investment of new investors. This is a method through which the unlawful fund raising companies guarantee the principal and interest from an unspecified number of people without authorization, permission, registration, or reporting. Furthermore, defrauding multi-level investment by paying referral allowances or commissions when introducing sub-investors is a typical behavior of the unlawful fund raising crimes. Method: This study reviews previous studies through the literature study, and examines the actual situation via the empirical studies along with theoretical review of unlawful fund raising act, which is deceived by high returns, and deceptive behavior through multi-stage investment. Results: This study based on the gravity of the crime of unlawful fund raising, the latest trends in the crime types including the impersonation of financial companies and virtual currencies are analyzed. Sanctions against those who engage in an unlawful fund raising act should be strengthened, and good traders should be protected. Conclusion: Furthermore, the gravity of punishment in the deterrence theory for the crime prevention is presented as a theoretical grounds. As a measure to prevent damages, it is necessary to raise the criminal punishment, and introduce punitive damages and a special judicial police officer system. Keywords: Unlawful Fund Raising, Financial Crime, Investment Fraud, Deterrence Theory, Ponzi Scheme References [4] Lee CH & Kim JY & Im JO. People's Livelihood and Economic Crimes, Korean Institute of Criminology. Policy Research Report, 106, 39-40 (2009). [5] Toh JJ. A Study on the Finance Fraud in Korea, Korean Institute of Criminology. Policy Research Report, 2(25), 138-182 (2002). [6] Park CS & Hwang JT & Yang SD. A Study on the Types and Treatment of the Investment Fraud. Korean Criminological Review, 10(25), 24-27 (2010). [8] Lee KS. Crime Environment for Conducting Fund-raising Business without Permission and Legislative Countermeasure. Police Journal, 16(48), 99-123 (2016). [9] Kim HS. The Horizon of Illegal Structure and Type Analysis of Conducting Fund-rasing Business Crime. Korean Criminological Review, 2(3), 97-136 (2017). [10] Tunnell KD. Choosing Crime: Close Your Eyes and Take Your Chances. Justice Quarterly, 7(4), 673-690 (1990). [16] Jo S. Changes in Security Environment Following Crimes of Leaking the Republic of Korea's Industrial Technologies and Directions for Introducing Detective System. International Journal of Police and Policing, 3(2), 35-42 (2018). [Read More] [17] Koenig T & Rustad M. Crimtorts’ as Corporate Just Deserts. University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, 31, 289-297 (1998). [25] Han BK. New Understanding on Act on the Regulation of Conducting Fund-rising Business without Permission -From Criminal Law Perspective to Law on the Regulation of Finance Innovation Perspective, Korea Financial Law Association, 17(2), 151-201(2020). [26] Sung YE. Social Realities and Its Impact on the Criminal Case of Law Enforcement Processes. International Journal of Criminal Study, 1(1), 26-32 (2016). [Read More] [27] Jang JC & Lee EO. Acceptability of Concept of Punitive Damages. Chungang Journal of Legal Studies, 39(3), 377-379 (2015). [28] Park HH. Police Activities in the Age of Big Data Utilization. International Journal of Protection, Security & Investigation, 3(1), 14-17 (2018). [Read More] [30] Park SY & Park MW. Policy Reference for Improving Community Safety: Factors That Determine the Citizen Satisfaction with Police Service in Korea and the U.S. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 2(3), 9-17 (2017). [Read More] [11] Lee SR & Kwak DK & Park JS. Modern Society & Crime. Chungmok (2019). [12] Akers RL & Sellers CS & Jennings WG. Criminological Theories: Introduction Evaluation, and Application. Oxford (2020). [13] Nagin DS & Cullen FT & Jonson CL. Deterrence, Choice, and Crime. Contemporary Perspectives (2018). [19] Wennerlind C. Casualties of Credit. Harvard University (2011). [20] Husak D. Overcriminalization: The Limits of the Criminal Law. Oxford University (2008). [21] Arner DW. Financial Stability, Economic Growth, and the Role of Law. Cambridge University (2007). [22] Buell SW. Capital Offenses: Business Crime and Punishment in America's Corporate Age. Norton & Company (2016). [23] Steven P. Crime Prevention Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations. Routledge (2018). [24] Sutton A. Crime Prevention. Cambridge University (2016). [29] Bernard E. Harcourt. The Illusion of Free Markets. Harvard University (2011). [7] Yang SD. The Study on the Illegal Multi-level Marketing. Dongguk University, Doctoral Thesis (2009). [1] Grounds for Confiscation of Profits of Frauds Said to be Prepared 4 Years Ago...Still Not Available. Financial News (2020). [2] Article 2 of the Act on the Regulation of Conducting Fund-raising Business without Permission (Hereinafter, Unlawful Fund Raising Act) (2021). [3] Article 5 of the Unlawful Fund Raising Act (2019). [14] Shadow of Unlawful Fund Raising, Probation for KRW 67 Billion Swindler..Light Punishment Causes Repeat Offenses. E-daily (2018). [15] Key Proposal by Honorable Byungdoo Min, Proposal of a Partial Amendment for the Act on the Regulation of Unlawful Fund Raising Act. Agendum No. 2005754 (2017). [18] Financial Supervisory Service, The 2017 Characteristics of the Companies Suspected of Unlawful Fund Raising and Cautions for Consumers: Investment Fraud using High Returns as Bait - Never Trust Them (2018). ? Source:
  • The Effects of Group Art Therapy on the Learned Helplessness and Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy of Mentally Challenged..
    By. Chemi Kang
    Abstract Purpose: The career decision-making self-efficacy is a belief about an individual's ability to successfully accomplish a given task. Students do not demonstrate an active attitude when they are faced with various stresses and anxiety about their own career or employment, and even some are passive and self-reliant, and they learn throughout their lives by becoming helpless when faced with numerous challenges due to their lack of responsibility or low self-esteem, thereby demonstrating symptoms of learned helplessness. As a result of the study which identified the relationship between learned helplessness and career path, the students with a high level of learned helplessness had a relatively high percentage of independent and dependent decisions in the overall process such as career selection, search, and decision relative to the students with a low sense of helplessness, and it was also claimed that the children with high learned helplessness showed relatively low means to solve career-related problem situations promptly. Hence, it is evident that by conducting the group art therapy, negative cognition and behavior can be changed through the group interaction and successful experiences in the art therapy process. This paper seeks to specifically examine the effects of group art therapy, which is very useful among the various treatment techniques which can help solve internal problems, on the learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy formed through the repeated failures. Method: Twenty mentally challenged high school students enrolled in special classes at average high schools were assigned to the experimental group and 10 to the control group. The group program was conducted twice a week, for a total of 10 sessions of 80 minutes per session. For the pre-post-additional-tests on learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy, repeated measure analysis of variance and simple main effect analysis were performed. Results: The experimental group in receipt of the group art therapy program was statistically significantly higher in the learned helplessness and career decision making self-efficacy scores than the control group both after and additional. Such results are meaning in that they help not only the mentally challenged high school students who are about to graduate, but also the mentally challenged high school students currently enrolled in the school to increase their self-confidence and self-esteem to ensure that they can make career choices that align with the reality through the positive understanding of themselves and the correct perception related changes. Conclusion: The group art therapy helps to address issues and problems through deep insight into one's inner self, and helps to improve the self-esteem by having a positive self-image, further to being an important factor for improvement. Hence, through this study, the group art therapy program should make an active effort to give a sense of achievement for the human growth, convert negative motives to positive motives, and diversify the scope of application of group art therapy programs for addressing realistic problems. Keywords: Group Art Therapy, Learned Helplessness, Career Decision Making, Self-Efficacy, Mentally Challenged References [1] Park YI & Ha J. The Mediating Effect of Career Motivation in Relation of Family Support and Career Preparation Behavior. Youth Facility Environment, 17(3), 81-91 (2019). [2] Shin HJ. A Potential Profile Analysis on Career Stress and Career Preparatory Behavior of University Students and Verification of the Influence of Career Motivation. The Korean Journal of School Psychology, 13(2), 349-373 (2016). [3] Kim KH & Cho YA. A Study on the Relationship Between Mock Learning Involvement Perceived by Middle School Students. Journal of the Korean Institute of Industrial Technology, 18(1), 269-281 (2017). [4] Cho H. The Effect of Learned Helplessness on the Adaptation to College Life. Regulations, 6(2), 10-15 (2021). [Read More] [5] Kang C. The Impact of Collective Art Therapy on the Learned Lethargy. Regulations, 6(3), 10-18 (2021). [Read More] [6] Moon ES & Bae JY. The Structural Relationships among History of Academic Achievement, Social-motivational Variables, and Learned Helplessness: A Comparison of Boy and Girl High School Students. Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 24(1), 183-205 (2010). [7] Song HN & Kang YS. The Effect of Career Exploration Group Counseling on the Career Consciousness of Mentally Handicapped High School Students. Research on Intellectual Disabilities, 9(2), 37-57 (2007). [8] Lee DY & No LD. A Study on the Career Success: Focusing on Factors Comparison of Workers with Disabilities and without Disabilities. Vocational Rehabilitation Research, 13(2), 51-80 (2003). [9] Lee YH. Analysis on Implementation and Needs of Vocational Education Training for Improving the Vocational Aptitude of School Aged Students of Special Schools and Special Classes. Special Education Journal, 4(4), 403-426 (2003). [10] Kim GH & Kim JH. The Trend of Self Leadership Research. The Korean Leadership Review, 6(1), 77-98 (2014). [11] Bae JY & Kim YJ. Youth Mental Health Crisis and Countermeasure in Korean. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 1(1), 13-18 (2016). [Read More] [12] London M. Toward a Theory of Career Motivation. Academy of Management Review, 8, 620-630 (1983). [13] Park YI & Ha J. The Mediating Effect of Career Motivation in Relation of Family Support and Career Preparation Behavior. Youth Facility Environment, 17(3), 81-91 (2019). [14] Shin HJ. A Potential Profile Analysis on Career Stress and Career Preparatory Behavior of University Students and Verification of the Influence of Career Motivation. The Korean Journal of School Psychology, 13(2), 349-373 (2016). [15] Lee MK & Lee GM. The Effects of Group Art Therapy Program on the Ego-resilience of the Low-income Families' Youths. Korean Journal of Art Therapy, 21(3), 499-517 (2014). [16] Choi KB. A Study on Stress, Self-esteem and Resilience for Korean Nursing Students’ Safety Management. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 4(1), 8-18 (2019). [Read More] [17] Super DE. The Preliminary Appraisal in Vocational Counseling. The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 36(3), 154-161 (1957). [18] Kang YH & Oh HS. A the Effects of Group Art Therapy by Solid Molding Activity on Self-identity and Self-efficacy of Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Art Psychotherapy, 6(1), 1-21 (2016). [19] Kim DY & Ryu JJ. Effects of the Group Art Therapy on the Learned Helplessness of Old People. Korean Journal of Art Therapy, 8(1), 103-126 (2001). [21] Noe RA & Noe AW & Bachhuber JA. An Investigation of the Correlates of Career Motivation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37(3), 340-356 (1990). [22] London M & Noe RA. London’s Career Motivation Theory: An Update on Measurement and Research. Journal of Career Assessment, 5(1), 61-80 (1997). [23] Kang HJ & Kang SH & Lim EM. A Study on the Possibility of Group Classification based on Academic Motivation and Career Motivation of General High School Students. Asian Journal of Education, 17(2), 151-175 (2016). [24] Kim BJ. Time and Happiness. The Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 28(1), 49-67 (2014). [25] Park WS. Development and Validation of Career Preparation Behaviour Test for High School Students. The Korean Journal of Educational Methodology Studies, 15(2), 121-143 (2003). [26] Nam JH. Development of the Criteria of Therapeutic Factors in Group Art Therapy. Korean Journal of Art Therapy, 19(3), 485-500 (2012). [27] Pyo HS & Won HR. The Effect of Cooperative Activity-centered Group Art Therapy on Maladjusted Elementary School Students' Self-expression, Peer Relationship and Adaptation to School. Korean Journal of Art Therapy, 23(2), 531-553 (2016). [28] Son NS & Lim HC. A the Effect of Group Art Therapy to Children's Depression in Childcare Facilities. Korean Journal of Art Therapy, 11(3), 455-479 (2004). [29] Choi SN & Jeon JG. A Study on Therapeutic Factors in Group Art Therapy: Adolescent Peer Group. Korean Journal of Art Therapy, 4(2), 161-174 (1997). [30] Choi YS & Choi WS & Kim GS. Effects of Solution -Focused Group Art Therapy on the Flow, Self-efficacy, and Problem-solving Skills of Female High School Students. Korean Journal of Art Therapy, 18(4), 845-873 (2011). [20] Kim BH & Kang EH & Kang K & Hwang MH. Career Counseling. Hakjisa (2013). ? Source:
  • A Study on Fostering Reserve Forces Capable of Demonstrate the Ability to Immediately Respond of the Korean Armed Forces
    By. Jiwon Yun, Ilsoo Bae
    Abstract Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to explore the plan to foster the experts in reserve forces of the Korean armed forces based on a review of the operation of reserve forces in foreign countries, such as the United States and Germany, in consideration of the rapidly changing international situation and security changes on the Korean Peninsula following the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It is intended to examine the relevant development, and at the same time, while there are differences in terms of policy and implementation aspects, it is intended to make suggestions regarding policy development by deriving implications through the comparative analysis of the reserve forces system of Korea and the United States. Method: Considering the characteristics of this study, it was primarily composed of literature studies such as official documents, research papers, and related degree dissertations of the Korean and U.S. governments, Internet materials. As examples of the development of reserve forces in foreign countries, including the United States, case analysis of the reserve forces service system and organization method, reserve forces training, etc., were used. Based on which, various implications were drawn for fostering the reserve forces experts for Korea's elite reserve force. Result: For emphasis purposes, the U.S. and Germany legally maintain the same status as active duty and reserve forces. This is because budgeting and policy establishment for reserve forces are applied in the same manner as in active duty. In particular, the U.S. develops and applies the AGR and ADOS systems based on the legal basis and budget, and operates the reserve force as a unit from the peacetime. However, Korea is currently conducting a short mobilization call training for three days and two nights. In case of emergency, after the general mobilization order is issued, the unit enters into the relevant unit to increase the mobilization and establish the unit. Moving forward, it is necessary to train the reserve forces experts who can contribute to shortening the gap between peacetime and when the general mobilization order is issued. Conclusion: The lessons learned from the Russo-Ukraine war are the spirit of armed struggle from the leader to the people, the strategy and tactics to operate the weapon system, and above all, the very importance of mobilizing the reserve force that can demonstrate practical combat power in the battlefield in case of emergency. As such, it is very important to prepare a plan for fostering the reserve forces experts in consideration of changes in the international order in the 21st century, declining population, changes in war patterns such as hybrid warfare shown in the Russo-Ukraine war, and Korea's future defense environment, among the key tasks of the Defense Reform 4.0. Keywords: Russo-Ukraine War, Changes in the Defense Environment, Elite Reserve Forces, Non-Standing Reserve Forces System, Defense Reform 4.0 References [1] Gonzalo G & Park S & Cho H. Prospects for New Wars in the 21st Century. International Journal of Military Affairs, 6(3), 43-52 (2021). [Read More] [2] Jang SH. Ukraine Crisis in 2021-2022: Russia's Goals, Strategies and Variables for Future Prospects. International Area Studies Review, 26(1), 3-23 (2022). [6] Yun JW & Bae IS. A Review of the International Order and Human Security in the Era of Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 6(4), 28-35 (2021). [Read More] [8] Baek J & Yun J. A Study on the Multi-domain Environment and Revolution in Military Affairs of the Korean Military. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 7(1), 72-80 (2022). [Read More] [9] Cho H & Park S & Im Y. Human Security Task and Prospect on Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 5(2), 48-55 (2020). [Read More] [10] Yun JW. An Analysis of the Operating and Establishing Advanced Reserve Forces in the Era of Reduced Standing Forces. The Journal of Area Studies, 39(3), 297-322 (2021). [11] Kang YG. The Enhancement of Civilian Military Employees System for Improving the Reserve Forces Management Efficiency in Korean Military. Journal of Advances in Military Studies, 5(1), 49-77 (2022). [12] Kang YG. A Study on the Korean Reserve Forces Policy in Preparation for the Decline of the Reserve Forces Resources. Review of Korean Military Studies, 10(2), 181-201 (2021). [14] Kim TS. The Transitioning Process of German Reserve Forces and Their Implications. Defense Research, 63(2), 207-212 (2020). [17] Shin D & Jung CW. Proposal for Korea's Reserve Forces Advancement Via the Development Cases of U.S. Reserve Forces. Weekly Defense Discussion, 1650, 1-2 (2016). [18] Oh M. Introduction to the U.S. Recruitment and Reserve Forces System. The National Assembly Library, 2, 3-3 (2022). [19] Jung CW & Jung DY. German Reserve Force’s Reform and Implications. Weekly Defense Discussion, 1804, 6-7 (2020). [20] Seol BY. A Plan for Establishing a Mobilization Immediate Response Posture in Line with Roles and Responsibilities. Mobilization Reserve Forces, 620, 47-50 (2022). [21] Jeong IS & Jang TD. A Study on Strengthening the Military Effectiveness of the ROK Military's Mobilization Resources : Focusing on the Troop and Force Structure. Korea and Global Affairs, 6(1), 145-166 (2022). [23] Kim KS. A Reserve Force Innovation Plan in Preparation for the Future Military Aspect. Joint Forum, 90, 40-41 (2021). [25] Lee S. China’s Military Rise and the U.S. Strategic Framework for the Indo-pacific: Protection of Republic of Korea’s National Interest. Protection Convergence, 6(1), 1-11 (2021). [Read More] [26] Yun JW. Advancement of the Reserve Forces People Desire and the Securing of the Driving Force. Military Journal, 177, 42-43 (2022). [27] Yun JW. Analysis of Main Factors and Implications of Russia's Armed Invasion of Ukraine. The Korean Journal of Security Affairs, 79, 3-4 (2022). [28] Lee S. A Smart Power Strategies to the Peace Process on the Korean Peninsula. International Journal of Military Affairs, 6(1), 1-9 (2021). [Read More] [29] Kim SH & Kwak YK & Yun CS. A Study on the Leadership Capacity Enhancement of Reserve Commanders. Lifelong Education Leadership Study, 7(2), 63-70 (2020). [30] Lee WS. Future Reserve Forces Commander's Operation Plan. Mobilization Reserve Forces, 620, 165-167 (2022). [4] Korean Army. Mobilization and Reserve Forces Work. Operation Manual (2021). [5] Ministry of National Defense. Defense Vision 2050. ROK Army (2022). [13] ROK Army Training & Doctrine Command. Future Operational Environment Analysis. ROK Army (2022). [3] (2022). [7] Doo J. Evaluation and Implications of the Ukrainian War. Material of Presentation for the 3rd RINSA Forum of National Defense University (2022). [15] (2022). [16] Min BH. Strategies for Expanding the Non-standing Reserve Forces System. Presentation Materials at the National Assembly Policy Debate (2021). [22] (2022). [24] Matt N. Understanding and Comparing the U.S. Army Reserve, Paper Presented at the Seminar on Reserve Force Development. National Defense Research Institute (2020). ? Source:
  • Ukraine and Responsibility to Protect (R2P): Present and Future Implications
    By. Jina Choi
     Abstract Purpose: The war crimes allegedly committed against the civilian population in Ukraine by Russian military forces has generated multiple detrimental outcomes. Due to these war crimes, Russia was suspended from the United Nations Human Rights Council(UNHRC) as of April 2022. Russia’s alleged war crimes currently are undergoing thorough investigations by the UNHRC’s Commission of Inquiry. The current humanitarian situation in war-devastated Ukraine has been somewhat under researched. Method: This paper employs the Responsibility to Protect(R2P) theory to examine the present and future of potential application of R2P in Ukraine. Based on resources from the R2P and human rights related research by the US government, the UN and its agencies, scholars, and experts, This article analyzes the failure of Russia to observe the principle of distinction between civilians and combatants as required by the Geneva Conventions, war-affected citizens in Ukraine, as well as potential application of the Responsibility to Protect(R2P) and its implication that the international community has a duty to protect civilians against Russian aggressions. Results: The paper finds that the potential application of R2P in Ukraine will likely face some operational challenges within the UNSC, the potential application of R2P seems feasible as it is both legitimate and justifiable action in accordance with the international law. The actual application of R2P should however carefully be considered since the nature of use of force- often does more harm than good. The potential application of R2P might result in more harm to civilians if additional casualties are generated. Conclusion: The international community should employ additional countermeasures such as added economic sanctions. Pressure should be brought to bear until Russia decides to refrain from war and negotiate a peace between Russia and Ukraine. The potential application of R2P in Ukraine should therefore be most carefully considered and maybe used as a last resort, to avoid and prevent a potential Third World War in coming months. Keywords: The Responsibility to Protect(R2P), Humanitarian Law, Human Rights, Ukraine, Russia References [1] Green J & Henderson C & Ruys T. Russia’s Attack on Ukraine and the Jus Ad Bellum. Journal on the Use of Force and International Law, 9(1), 4-30 (2022). [9] Kondoch B. The Responsibility to Protect and Northeast Asia: The Case of North Korea. The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 24(4), 433-448 (2012). [10] Bellamy A. Realizing the Responsibility to Protect. International Studies Perspective, 10, 111-128 (2009). [12] Bellamy A. The Responsibility to Protect and the Problem of Military Intervention. International Affairs, 84(4), 615-639 (2008). [15] Howe B. Divergent Interpretations of the R2P and Human Security: Implications for Governance Challenges in Myanmar. The Korean Journal of Security Affairs, 23(1), 80-101 (2018). [16] Erskine T. Coalitions of Willing and Responsibility to Protect: Informal Associations, Enhanced Capacities, and Shared Moral Burdens. Ethics & International Affairs, 28(1), 115-145 (2014). [18] Bellamy A. Three Pillars of the Responsibility to Protect. Pensamiento Propio, 41, 35-64 (2015). [19] Thakur R. Libya and the Responsibility to Protect: Between Opportunistic Humanitarianism and Value-free Pragmatism. Security Challenges, 7(4), 13-25 (2011). [20] Welsh J. The Responsibility to Protect After Libya & Syria. The Journal of American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 145(4), 75-87 (2016). [21] Halliyade M. Syria-another Drawback for R2P? An Analysis of R2P’s Failure to Change International Law on Humanitarian Intervention. Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality, 4(2), 215-247 (2016). [22] Eckert A. The Responsibility to Protect in Anarchical Society: Power, Interest, and the Protection of Civilians in Libya and Syria. Denver Journal of International Law & Policy, 41(1), 87-99 (2012). [24] Gore KN & Camp CH & Chu L. Nation States Must Comply with Their Responsibility to Protect Ukraine against the Russian Federation’s Ongoing War Crimes. The World Financial Review, n4049096 (2022). [40] Bosurgi R & Davidson C & Gaynor-Brook L & Moyer C & Odeny B & Turner R. Ukraine Conflict: Prioritizing Lives and Health. PLOS Medicine, 19(5), 1-2 (2022). [41] Yun J & Bae I. A Review of the International Order and Human Security in the Era of Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 6(4), 28-35 (2021). [Read More] [42] Cha M. Pandemic and the Threat of Bioterrorism. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 6(1), 45-52 (2021). [Read More] [43] Cho H & Park S & Im Y. Human Security Task and Prospect on Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 5(2), 48-55 (2020). [Read More] [44] Nam J. Plan for Secure Tourism Safety in the Post Covid-19 Era. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 6(4), 10-18 (2021). [Read More] [45] Choi J. Current and Future Considerations for the Use of Artificial Intelligence by the United States’ Department of Defense. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(1), 1-6 (2021). [Read More] [51] Barber R. What does the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ Require of State in Ukraine?. Journal of International Peacekeeping, 25, 155-177 (2022). [52] Barber R. Cooperating Through the General Assembly to End Serious Breaches of Peremptory Norms. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 71(1), 1-35 (2022). [53] Ebi K & Bowen K & Calkins J & Chen M & Huq S & Nalau J & Palutikof J & Rosenzweig C. Interactions Between Two Existential Threats: Covid-19 and Climate Change. Climate Risk Management, 34, 1-5 (2021). [54] Brockmeier S & Stuenkel O & Tourinho M. The Impact of the Libya Intervention Debates on Norms of Protection. Global Society, 30(1), 113-133 (2015). [55] Domestici-Met M. Protecting in Libya on Behalf of the International Community. Goettingen Journal of International Law, 3(3), 861-889 (2011). [56] Sauer T. The Origins of the Ukraine Crisis and the Need for Collective Security between Russia and the West. Global Policy, 8(1), 82-91 (2017). [57] Mearsheimer J. Why the Ukraine Crisis is the West’s Fault?: The Liberal Delusions That Provoked Putin. Foreign Affairs, 93(5), 77-89 (2014). [58] Chengyi P. Why the Ukraine Crisis is the West’s Fault: A Historical and Philosophical Perspective. International Critical Thought, 7(2), 267-278 (2017). [59] Cook S. The Crimean Crisis and International Law: A Realist Perspective. University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy, 10(1), 65-82 (2015). [60] Menon R & Ruger W. NATO Enlargement and US Grand Strategy: A Net Assessment. International Politics, 57, 371-400 (2020). [61] Allison R. Russian ‘Deniable’ Intervention in Ukraine: How and Why Russia Broke the Rules. International Affairs, 90(6), 1225-1297 (2014). [62] Kappeler A. Ukraine and Russia: Legacies of the Imperial Past and Competing Memories. Journal of Eurasian Studies, 5, 107-115 (2014). [63] Wosniak M. The Ukraine Crisis and Shift in US Foreign Policy. International Studies, 18(2), 87-102 (2016). [64] Akhli R. The Rapid Changes of the U.S. Foreign Military Assistance to Ukraine in 2019: A Neoclassical Realism Perspective. Journal Pertahanan, 6(2), 174-189 (2020). [2] Human Rights Watch. Ukraine: Executions, Torture during Russian Occupation. Human Rights Watch (2022). [3] Adams K & Arivalagan K & Bonardi M & Juel P & Martz C. Russian War Crimes against Ukraine: The Breach of International Humanitarian Law by the Russian Federation. The Global Accountability Network (2022). [4] (2022). [5] (2022). [6] (2022). [7] (2022). [8] International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. The Responsibility to Protect. International Development Research Centre (2001). [11] The United Nations General Assembly. 2005 World Summit Outcome. The United Nations (2005). [13] The United Nations Security Council. Resolution 1674. The United Nations (2006). [14] The United Nations General Assembly. The Responsibility to Protect. The United Nations (2009). [17] Evans G. R2P: The Dream and the Reality. European Centre for the Responsibility to Protect’s Annual Lecture at Leeds University (2020). [23] The United Nations Security Council. Letter Dated 14 December 2015 from the Permanent Representative of Liechtenstein to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-general. The United Nations (2015). [25] Scheffer D. Can Russia Be Held Accountable for War Crimes in Ukraine?. Council on Foreign Relations (2022). [26] Ukraine, Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain, and Northern Island, and United States of America. Memorandum on Security Assurances in Connection with Ukraine’s Accession on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Government of Ukraine (1994). [27] Lerch M. International Court of Justice Preliminary Decision in Ukraine v Russia. European Parliament (2022). [28] The United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Situation of Human Rights in Ukraine in the Context of the Armed Attack By the Russian Federation. The United Nations (2022). [29] Data Friendly Space. Ukrainian Crisis: Situational Analysis. The Information Management and Analysis Cell (2022). [30] The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Assistant Secretary-general for Humanitarian Affairs and Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator Joyce Msuya, Remarks to the UN Security Council on Ukraine. The United Nations (2022). [31] (2022). [32] (2022). [33] (2022). [34] Stepanenko K & Hird K & Kagan F. Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment. Institute for the Study of War (2022). [35] (2022). [36] (2022). [37] (2022). [38] (2022). [39] The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. Ukraine Humanitarian Situation Report No. 14. The United Nations (2022). [46] The United Nations General Assembly. Situation on Human Rights in Ukraine Stemming from the Russian Aggression. The United Nations (2022). [47] (2022). [48] (2022). [49] Arabia C & Bowen A & Welt C. U.S. Security Assistance to Ukraine. Congressional Research Service (2022). [50] (2022). ? Source:
  • The Effect of the Diving Club Membership's Educational Satisfaction on the Brand Asset and the Intention to Revisit
    By. Seongjin Hong, Seungjung Woo
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the development of the diving industry by examining and understanding the educational satisfaction of students who are diving club members, and by examining the relevance to brand asset and the effect on intention to revisit. Method: A survey was conducted with 355 students through the significance sampling method among the students who received diving education. The final measurement tool with validity and reliability secured consisted of 11 diving educational satisfaction questions, 5 brand asset questions, and 4 intention to revisit questions was used. For the data processing, frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results: As a result of this study, first, it turned out that lecture satisfaction and job related satisfaction, which are sub-factors of educational satisfaction, affect awareness, which is a sub-factor of brand asset. Second, colleague satisfaction, a sub-factor of educational satisfaction, turned out to affect loyalty, a sub-factor of brand asset. Third, the job related satisfaction and colleague satisfaction, which are sub-factors of educational satisfaction, turned out to have an effect on the intention to revisit. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it was confirmed that the educational satisfaction of diving students affects the brand asset and the intention to revisit. The instructors engaged in diving and those involved in the diving industry ought to keep in mind that the educational satisfaction of students during the diving education contributes to the development of the diving organization and further the development of the diving industry over the long term. Keywords: Leisure Sports, Diving, Educational Satisfaction, Brand Asset, Intention to Revisit References [1] Kim HC & Cho GS. A Study about Extrinsic Factors Affecting Scuba Diving Activities for Club Members. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 46(6), 153-166 (2007). [2] Woo SJ. Free Diving Instructor’s Role Behavior on Learning Performance and Customer Orientation. The Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 12(3), 2259-2271 (2021). [3] Choi CR. The Difference Between Educational Satisfaction and Participation Intention according to Scuba Divers' Involvement Level and Diving Frequency. Korean Journal of Sport Management, 11(1), 65-75 (2006). [4] Kim SM. The Relationship among Physical, Educational Satisfaction, Hedonic Enjoyment and Sport Loyalty of the Learning Process of Scuba Diving. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 47(1), 699-708 (1989). [5] Oliver RL. Consumer Perceptions of Interpersonal Equity and Satisfaction. Journal of Marketing, 53(2), 21-35 (1989). [6] Cheon HG. Exploring Physical Educational Value of Scuba Diving: Focused on the Physical Education Ability of the 2015 Revised Curriculum. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 56(4), 219-233 (2017). [7] Lim BW & Gwon HS. A Narrative Inquiry on Scuba Diving Instructors Training Course. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 51(5), 527-535 (2012). [8] Han MG. The Effect of the Motivation for Teaching Profession on the Job Satisfaction. Journal of Korean Society for the Study of Physical Education, 18(1), 113-121 (2013). [9] Gwon HS & Lim BW. Scuba Diving Buddy Selection Process by Instructors' Perception. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 55(6), 551-560 (2016). [10] Seok HK. The Relationship Between Trust of Instructor and Coaching Effectiveness in Skin-scuba Diver. The Korea Journal of Sport, 2(2), 221-228 (2004). [11] Kim HC. The Relationship among Instructor Trust, Flow and Recreation Specialization of Scuba-diving Club Members. The Korea Journal of Sport, 11(3), 221-228 (2013). [12] Cho LH. A Study on the Operating Status of the Weekend P.E. Programs in Taekwondo Studios after the Introduction of the Five-day Schooling, and Satisfaction Levels with and Participation Effects of the Programs. Journal of Korean Society for the Study of Physical Education, 17(4), 247-259 (2013). [13] Seo MJ & Yim ES. A Study of Memory, Satisfaction and Loyalty based on Experience Economy: The Case of Scuba Diving Resort to East Coast of Korea. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Studies, 13(3), 43-56 (2011). [14] Ren J & Lee SK. A Study on the Brand Equity of Title Sponsorship, Customer’s Attitude, Loyalty, and Intention of Use: With a Focus on the Chinese E-sports Clubs. Kinesiology, 6(4), 21-32 (2021). [Read More] [15] Kim SH & Shin HB & Hong SJ. The Structural Relationship among Safety Climate, Motive to Participate, and Leisure Satisfaction Level of Marine Sports Participants. Kinesiology, 5(1), 65-73 (2020). [Read More] [16] Shin MS & Oh KA & Park SJ. The Relationship between Educational Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Repurchase Intention of Scuba Diving. Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology, 36(4), 1327-1337 (2019). [17] Choi CR. The Difference between Educational Satisfaction and Participation Intention according to Scuba Divers' Involvement Level and Diving Frequency. Korean Journal of Sport Management, 11(1), 65-75 (2006). [18] Kwon IK & Won DY. The Structural Relationship among Professional Sports Team’s Brand Equity, Team Identification and Team Loyalty: Focused on Professional Football and Professional Baseball. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 53(2), 59-67 (2014). [19] Oh IA & Jung MS & Lim CH. The Effect of Traditional Marketing and Experiential Marketing on Stadium Revisit Intention and Brand Equity of Professional Sport Teams: A Study of Professional Baseball Game Spectators. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 56(5), 403-413 (2017). [20] Cronin JJ & Brady MK & Hult GT. Assessing the Effects of Quality, Value and Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Behavioral Intentions in Service Environments. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 193-218 (2000). [21] Kwon KS & Oh TY & Ku SH & Ahn JS & Bang SW. What Drives Fans? Effect of Service Marketing Mix on Revisit Intentions: The Case of K-league Classic. Korean Journal of Sport Management, 20(3), 403-413 (2015). [22] Oh SH & Kim HY & Lee SG. Changes of the Magnitude of Internal Consistency Reliability based on the Response Category Number. The Korean Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sports Science, 5(2), 1-8 (2003). [23] Cheon HU. Exploring Physical Educational Value of Scuba Diving: Focused on the Physical Education Ability of the 2015 Revised Curriculum. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 56(4), 219-233 (2017). [24] Heide JB. Inter-organizational Governance in Marketing Channels. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 71-85 (1994). [25] Lee YJ. A Theoretical Examination of Customer Satisfaction Research: Findings and Outlook. Journal of Consumer Studies, 11(2), 139-166 (2000). [26] Ahn HS. A Comprehensive Study about Research of Sports Center's Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction. The Korean Beauty Management Journal, 1(2), 217-280 (2013). [27] La SA & Lee YJ. A Critical Review of Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Relationship Marketing, and Customer Relationship Management. Korea Marketing Review, 30(1), 53-104 (2015). [28] Lee SK & Jeon TJ. The Effects of Sports Center Clients Marketing Mix Satisfaction on Customer Trust and Repurchase Intention. The Korea Journal of Sports Science, 22(5), 997-987 (2013). [29] Kim SY & Kim GN & Choi SH. The Effect of Relationship Marketing Strategy on Customer Trust and Intention for Revisiting to Indoor Golf Center. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 76, 111-121 (2019). [30] Jung BG & Choi JP. The Effects of Relationship Marketing Strategies on Customers' Satisfaction and Repurchase Intention of Female at Fitness Clubs. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 47(1), 59-67 (2008). ? Source:  
  • The Relationship Among Social Support, Career Adaptability, Psychological Capital and Career Preparation Behavior of Judo..
    By. Wonhee Lee, Wookyung Sun
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social support, career adaptability, psychological capital, and career preparation behavior of the majored in Judo kata in 2021.To achieve the purpose of this study, the following detailed goals were set. Method: This study collected data from students who completed Judo kata class among students majoring in Judo kata in 2021 to investigate the relationship between Judo kata major's social support, career adaptability, psychological capital and career preparation behavior The data were collected by the researcher in the class of judo kata major after the guidance professor of the university Judo kata explained the purpose and purpose of the study in advance and received permission to collect the data. The data used in the actual analysis was 480 copies in a row, or the contents of the questionnaire were partially omitted. 78 questionnaires were excluded. Results: Therefore, universities need to introduce and implement various career preparation programs to increase students' psychological capital and actively implement information collection for their careers to achieve their goals. If they can invest time in consultation rather than interest or support for students, or provide financial support, they will be able to prepare for proper career. Conclusion: In relation to social support and career, environmental factors and educational considerations should be followed up on other departments, and social support, career adaptability, psychological capital, and career preparation behavior according to martial arts or physical education departments should be conducted more reliable research. Keywords: Judo Kata, Social Support, Career Adaptation, Psychological Capital, Career Preparation Behavior References [4] Kang HW. The Relationship Between SNS Addiction Tendency, Social Support, Loneliness, Health Perception, Interpersonal Relationship of College Students and Application of Treatment Recreation through Physical Activity. The Journal of the Korean Physical Sciences, 22(1), 121-133 (2013). [7] Kim BH. The Relationship among Resilience, Career Attitude Maturity and Career Preparation Behavior of Female College Students. Career Education Research, 23(4), 93-111 (2010). [8] Kim NM & Kim HW. The Structural Relationship Between the Teacher's Autonomy Support, the Learner's Psychological Capital, Cognitive Learning Strategy and Learning Participation. Learner-centered Curriculum Research, 16, 759-781 (2016). [12] Abbas M & Raja U. Impact of Psychological Capital on Innovative Performance and Job Stress, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences. Revue Canadienne des Sciences de I’ Administration, 32(2), 128-138 (2015). [13] Bandura A & Freeman WH & Lightsey Richard. Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 13(2), 158-166 (1997). [14] Betz NE. Implications of the Null Environment Hypothesis for Women’s Career Development and for Counseling Psychology. Counseling Psychologist, 1, 136-144 (1989). [15] Cohen S & Hoberman HM. Positive Events and Social Supports as Buffers of Life Change Stress. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 13(2), 99-125 (1983). [16] Crant JM. Proactive Behavior in Organizations. Journal of Management, 26, 435-462 (2000). [17] Creed PA & Fallon R & Hood M. The Relationship Between Career Adaptability, Person and Situation Variables, and Career Concerns in Young Adults. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(2), 219-229 (2009). [18] Germeijs V & Verschueren K. High School Students’ Career Decision-making Process: Consequences for Choice Implementation in Higher Education. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(2), 223-241 (2007). [19] Hirschi A. Career Adaptability Development in Adolescence: Multiple Predictors and Effect on Sense of Power and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(2), 145-155 (2009). [20] Hirschi A. Development and Criterion Validity of Differentiated and Elevated Interests in Adolescence. Journal of Career Assessment, 17(4), 384-401 (2009). [21] Luthans F & Luthans KW & Luthans BC. Positive Psychological Capital: Beyond Human and Social Capital. Business Horizons, 47(1), 45-50 (2004). [22] Yousefi Z & Abedi M & Baghban I & Eatemadi O & Abedi A. Personal and Situational Variables, and Career Concerns: Predicting Career Adaptability in Young Adults. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 263-271 (2009). [23] Youssef CM & Luthans F. Positive Organizational Behavior in the Workplace: The Impact of Hope, Optimism, and Resilience. Journal of Management, 33, 774-800 (2007). [24] Choi HS & Kim BC. The Effect of Martial Arts Training of Noncommissioned Officer Cadets on Leadership Skills and Innovative Behavior. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(1), 48-55 (2020). [Read More] [25] Kim EY. The Right Directions for Education in Korean Hapkido Dojang. International Journal of Martial Arts, 1(2), 1-7 (2016). [Read More] [26] Kim DG & Son MS & Jo SG. Study on Guard Organization in Korea and Usability of Judo as Guarding Martial Arts: Based on Ashi-waza and Ura-nage. International Journal of Martial Arts, 1(2), 27-37 (2016). [Read More] [27] Kim JH & Lee DH. The Influence of Experiential Marketing of Judo Gym on Exercise Participation: The Verification of Mediation Effect of Experiential Satisfaction. International Journal of Martial Arts, 4(2), 1-13 (2019). [Read More] [28] Jo SG & Choi SH. A Study on the Application Changes of Judo Techniques Depending on the Winning Experience and being Selected Experience as a Representative Player. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(1), 14-25 (2020). [Read More] [31] Park DC. Somatics and Physical Training Skill in Martial Art. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 4(2), 77-84 (2002). [32] Kim EH. The Current Status and Future Directions of Martial-arts Education in Yong-in University. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 7(2), 1-34 (2005). [33] Kim JY. The Existence Basis of Dongnae ‘Martial Arts School’ and Martial Arts Education in Open Port Area. Korean Journal of History of Physical Education, Sport and Dance, 16(3), 11-25 (2011). [34] Lee KY & Cho YT. Needs Analysis for Personality Education Orientation of the College Students. Journal of Character Education and Research, 1(2), 1-18 (2016). [1] Shim JH. The Effects of Social Support, Career Barriers, and Career Decision-making Self-efficacy on Career Preparation Behavior of Dance Major College Students. Sejong University, Doctoral Thesis (2016). [2] Yang EH. Structural Relationship Between Personality Factors and Psychosocial Variables of College Students and Career Preparatory Behavior. Kookmin University, Doctoral Thesis (2018). [3] Ko TY. The Effects of Social Support, Career Decision-making Self-efficacy, and Career Barriers on Career Preparation Behavior of College Students. Mokpo University, Doctoral Thesis (2008). [5] Kim JY. A Study on the Effect of Transformational Leadership on Psychological Capital and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Kyonggi University, Master's Thesis (2013). [6] Park JA. Structural Relationship among Personality Strengths, Self-regulation Efficacy, Self-directed Learning, and Career Adaptability of University Students. Hannam University, Doctoral Thesis (2014). [9] Kim KS. The Effects of Judo Training Types on Social Support and Self-efficacy among Adolescents. Yongin University, Master's Thesis (2011). [10] Kim WJ. The Mediating Effect of Career Adaptability and Career Decision-making Autonomy on the Relationship Between Self-directed Learning Ability and Career Preparation Behavior. Catholic University of Daegu, Master's Thesis (2018). [11] Kim JS. The Analysis of the Relationship Between Career Preparation Behavior and Career Adaptability of Travel Employees. Hanyang University, Doctoral Thesis (2018). [29] Song IH & Kim ES & Sun WK. Judo. Dragon Practice Personality Education (2021). [30] Kim JH & Kim SC & Kim CH. The Theory of Martial Arts. Korean Media (1997). ? Source:
  • A Study on the Waxing Effectiveness of Sugaring
    By. Shinhwa Kang, Jiyoung Lee
    Abstract Purpose: The pursuit of beauty, which started from ancient times, is a basic human need, and many studies on the attractiveness of appearance are on the rise, and such research on human beauty is an important public value. Recently, interest and demand for waxing are rising, but the level of professional education on waxing is low and the understanding of skin changes and follow-up care after waxing is low, so the need for research on waxing is emerging. The purpose of this study is to find out the difference in skin condition and hair growth rate after Brazilian treatment according to the type of waxing and to present it as basic data, and to contribute to the public value in beauty culture. Method: The subject of this study was a woman in her early 20s who had no experience with waxing, and waxed the bikini area between June and August 2022 using sugar wax and hard wax respectively. For 4 weeks after Brazilian waxing, the skin condition(including ingrown hair, folliculitis, etc.) and hair growth length were compared and analyzed at weekly intervals. The results were analyzed after the mixed study using clinical trials and interview methods. Results: As a result of comparative analysis of the skin condition and the length of the growing hair at weekly intervals after waxing, the condition of the skin showed that ingrown hair and inflammation occurred in the area where the sugar wax was applied, and the hair growth rate was slow. In the area treated with hard waxing, ingrown hair did not occur compared to sugar waxing, and the number of inflammations was significantly lower. The growth rate of cross-section hair was faster than that of sugar waxing, and it was confirmed that the thickness of the hair also grew thicker. Conclusion: Sugar waxing had excellent effects on hair removal and hair thickness reduction, such as lower skin dryness, redness, and irritation of pores compared to hard waxing, but follow-up care is expected to be very important. If follow-up care is not performed properly after Brazilian waxing, it is thought that the risk factors for ingrown hair and folliculitis may be high. Keywords: Sugaring, Waxing, Brazilian, Ingrown, Public Value References [1] Lim M & Lee J & Lee J & Jo J. Research on Creative Works Using Hair Pieces and Public Value. Public Value, 7(1), 62-70 (2022). [Read More] [2] Ko DV & Lee JY & Lee EH & Oh HA. A Study on the Risk Recognition and Protection of Semi-permanent Makeup in Female Students. Protection Convergence, 6(4) 58-68 (2021). [Read More] [3] We H & Lee J & Kim E. Exploring the Experience of Job Convergence Change in the Beauty and Health Industry Using Grounded Theory. Protection Convergence, 5(2), 84-93 (2020). [Read More] [4] Woo H & Kim E. Mediating Effect of the Involvement with Beauty Content in the Relationship Between the Characteristics of YouTube Beauty Content That Uses AI and the Intention to Purchase Cosmetics: Comparison between Men and Women from 20 to 40 Years Old. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(2), 30-43 (2021). [Read More] [5] Han J & Kim J & Cho M. Analysis of the Public Value of Celebrity Hair Color Trend in Milbon Collection. Public Value, 6(3), 32-40 (2021). [Read More] [6] Heo M & Kim M & Choi E. A Study on the Utilization of Public Values of the Zentangle Pattern and the Development of Nail Design. Public Value, 6(3), 1-10 (2021). [Read More] [7] Kim MJ & You EJ & Youn CS. An Exploratory Study on the Trend Beauty Waxing. Beauty Industry Research, 12(1), 35-50 (2018). [8] Park CY & Park JY & Yoo J. A Study on State of Usage and Awareness of Cosmetic Waxing for Skin Health Care. Journal of the Korea Entertainment Industry Association, 14(8), 153-162 (2020). [10] Shapiro J & Lui H. Treatments for Unwanted Facial Hair. Skin Therapy Letter, 10(10), 1-4 (2005). [12] Baek WJ & Han CJ. The Effect of Pursuit Benefit of Beauty Waxing on Reuse Intention. Journal of Convergence for Information Technology, 10(9), 244-250 (2020). [13] Lee SJ & Oh YK. Skin Condition Change and Hair Removal Effect on Adult Male Face by Hard Waxing and Sugaring. Journal of Korean Beauty Society, 26(6), 1448-1455 (2020). [14] Yang EH & Oh YK. Effect of Sugar Stick Fascia Therapy on Changes in Face Size and Skin Condition. Journal of the Korean Society of Cosmetology, 27(6), 1498-1505 (2021). [18] Lenore R & Varto H & Hodgson ZG. Smooth Talking: The Phenomenon of Pubic Hair Removal in Women. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 19(3), 121-121 (2010). [20] We SY & Im EJ. Customer Utilization and Satisfaction of the Scalp and Hair Care Salons. Journal of Investigative Cosmetology, 6(1), 7-14 (2010). [21] Choi YS & Choi WS. Nail Salon, Service Quality and a Study on Behavioral Intention. Journal of Industrial Economics and Business, 26(4), 1913-1932 (2013). [22] Yoon MJ. A Study on the Perception and Beauty of Brazilian Waxing in Pregnant Women. Korean Society of Cosmetics and Cosmetology, 12(1), 41-54 (2022). [24] Panchaprateep R & Tanus A & Tosti A. Clinical. Dermoscopic, and Histopathologic Features of Body Hair Disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 72(5), 890-900 (2015). [26] Lee SJ & Hyun MY & Park GY & Seo SJ. An Adverse Effect Following Facial Hair Removal by Thread Shaving. Korean Journal of Dermatology, 52(9), 674-675 (2014). [27] Kim H & Chang BS. Comparison of Skin Condition Before and after Use of Scrub Cosmetics and Microscopic Characteristics of Microbeads. Journal of Convergence for Information Technology, 9(6), 211-217 (2019). [28] Park KS & Lee HH. Development of a Water Sprayer for Skin Care and Its Effects on Moisture and Wrinkle Improvements. Korean Journal of Aesthetics and Cosmetics Society, 13(5), 603-613 (2015). [31] Jun BO & Kim MJ. Bioethics as Interdisciplinary Studies. Asia Pacific Journal of Health Law & Ethics, 2(3), 199-214 (2008). [32] Morse JM. Global Congress for Qualitative Health Research: Who are We? What will We Do? And Why?. Journal of Qualitative Research, 12(2), 73-84 (2011). [33] Shon CB & Lee JY. Phenomenological Case Study of the Experience of Telehealth Digital Art Therapy in a Self-quarantined Person Before Confirmed with Covid-19. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 20(12), 646-658 (2020). [35] Schmidtberger L & Ladizinski B & Ramirez-Fort MK. Wax on, Wax Off: Pubic Hair Grooming and Potential Complications. JAMA Dermatology, 150(2), 122-122 (2014). [17] Lee YJ. Awareness of Hair Removal in Adult Women and Satisfaction according to Hair Removal Areas. Department of Health Welfare Graduate School of Lifetime Welfare. Sungshin Women's University, Master's Thesis (2014). [29] Woo JH. Research of Skin Reaction from Method of Waxing in Soft-waxing and Sugaring. Daejeon University, Master's Thesis (2018). [30] Shin EH. Comparison of Satisfaction, Revisit Intention and Recommendation Intention after Soft Waxing and Sugaring. Sookmyung Women's University, Master's Thesis (2018). [34] Kim MJ. Survey on the Face, Body and Brazilian Waxing Procedures. Sungshin Women's University, Master's Thesis (2020). [11] Adler Y. Glamorous Skin Journey: The Amazing Knowledge Project about Life's Barrier Skin (2019). [15] Lilliane C. The History of Waxing. Professional Beauty Jul-aug (2015). [9] Mahamud T & Thongsuk A. Marketing Mix Factors that Influence the Use of Waxing Beauty Services. PATTAYA 32nd Int’l Conference on Marketing, Education, Humanities & Social Sciences(PMEHS–21), Pattaya (2021). [16] Korea Consumer Agency. In-depth Analysis of Risk Information Related to Hair Removal. Safety Report (2017). [19] (2022). [23] Luo DQ & Liang YH & Li XQ & Zhao YK & Wang F & Sarkar R. Ingrowing Hair: A Case Report. Medicine(Baltimore) (2016). [25] (2022). ? 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  • Effect of Caffeine Education on Caffeine Awareness: For College Students
    By. Soonjung Hwang, Myungin Lee
    Abstract Purpose: This is a single group related ex ante and ex post design study intended to examine and understand the effect of caffeine education on the cognitive improvement of college students. Method: From November 1, 2019 to November 29, 2019, a preliminary questionnaire survey was conducted with 103 junior year students from 2 health related departments at a university located in J city, Jeollabuk-do, once a week for 3 weeks, after which a total of 3 education sessions were conducted. The collected data were analyzed by using the frequency analysis and the paired sample t-test using the SPSS Win 18.0 program. Results: The mean for intake before education was 1.47±.40, and the mean for intake after education was 1.77± .47. The pre-educational knowledge was 0.58± .23 and the post-educational knowledge was 0.89± .10. When the intake and knowledge levels were compared with those before the education, the mean score increased after the education. Through which, it is evident that the level of caffeine knowledge increased after the education. Conclusion: The caffeine education program reduced the frequency of the caffeine intake, and after the education, the rate of correct response for knowledge questions increased, thereby confirming the fact that the caffeine knowledge level was improved. Furthermore, after checking the caffeine content in the recognition and behavior, it was confirmed that there was an improvement in the positive direction of selecting beverages and selecting alternative foods. However, in order to generalize university students and expand and interpret the effects of the education, it is considered that a wide range of subjects and long-term education will be needed. Keywords: Caffeine, Education, Recognition, Knowledge, College Student References [1] Choi JO. The Effect of Academic Burnout of Elementary School Students on the Smartphone Game Addiction Crisis: Mediating Effects of Anxiety and ADHD Tendency. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 6(4), 38-49 (2021). [Read More] [2] Jung ES & Park HJ. Effects on Stress Degree, Study Attitude, Sleeping Hours by Intake Degree of Caffeinated Drinks. Journal of Digital Convergence, 12(2), 353-361 (2014). [3] Kim MH & Kim YR & Lee JW & Park BK & Kim MK & Choi MK & Kim AJ. The Effects of Caffeine on Lipid and Mineral Content in the Serum of Rats. The Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition, 21(3), 336-343 (2008). [4] Lee JE & Huh W & Choi EJ. Pattern Analysis of High-caffeine Energy Drink Consumption and Adverse Effects among College Students in a University. The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea, 57(2), 110-118 (2013). [6] Kim JS & Lim KW & Hwang YY. Research Trend of Sport Nutrition Science in the Republic of Korea. International Journal of Sport, 1(1), 1-7 (2016). [Read More] [8] Kim YB & Lim SN. A Study on the Trends of Patents Concerning the Hair Loss Prevention and Improvement Technologies using AI. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(3), 32-42 (2021). [Read More] [9] Choi MY & Choi EJ. Usefulness of the Green Coffee Bean Fermented Product as a Cosmetic Material for Scalp Hair Protection. Protection Convergence, 7(1), 1-12 (2022). [Read More] [10] Roh SY & Lym JT & Ahn YK. Analysis of Caffeine in Favorite Food and Intake Status. Korea Academia Industrial Cooperation Society, 11, 859-862 (2014). [11] Park JA & Kim JH & Kim NY & Kim MAA & Kim MAB & Kim EJ & Kim SJ & Park JN. The Relationship Between Nursing Students' Caffeinated-beverage Intake, Learning Concentration, and Sleep Quality. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 5, 315-316 (2016). [12] Malinauskas BM & Aeby VG & Overton RF & Carpenter-Ae by T & Barber-Heidal K. A Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns among College Students. Nutrition Journal, 6(1), 35-41 (2007). [13] Miller KE. Energy Drinks, Race, and Problem Behaviors among College Students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(5), 490-497 (2008). [14] Valek M & Laslavic B & Laslavic Z. Daily Caffeine Intake among Osijek High School Students: Questionnaire Study. Croatian Medical Journal, 45(1), 72-75 (2004). [15] Park JS & Lee EJ & Lee CY & Jung HS. Consumption Status, Risk Awareness and Experience of Adverse Effects of High-caffeine Energy Drink among University Students. Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, 29(1), 102-114 (2015). [16] Lee JE & Huh W & Choi EJ. Pattern Analysis of High-caffeine Energy Drink Consumption and Adverse Effects among College Students in a University. Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Korea, 57(2), 110-118 (2013). [17] Han JH & Kim SM & Chun HR & Yu JH. Association Between Test Anxiety, Problematic Drinking, Depression, and Quality of Sleep among Nursing Students: Focused on High Caffeine Drink Intake and Non-intake Group. Health & Nursing, 32(2), 19-28 (2020). [18] Koo BW & Shin JS & Song CH & Huh YS. The Influence of Caffeine Coffee Period to the An-aerobic Exercise Capacity and the Blood Fatigue Subslance. The Korea Journal of Science, 24(4), 1327-1335 (2015). [19] Han JK & Lee SY. Effects of Caffeine Intake on Exercise Performance and Fatigue of Prep Students in College. Journal of Coaching Development, 22(1), 79-86 (2020). [20] Jung ES & Park HJ. Effects on Stress Degree, Study Attitude, Sleeping Hours by Intake Degree of Caffeinated Drinks. Journal of Digital Convergence, 12(2), 353-361 (2014). [21] Cho YH & Cho MK. The Impact of Alcohol and Caffeine Intake on Body Mass Index, Alcohol Use Disorder, and Quality of Sleep among University Freshmen. Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science, 17(4), 363-371 (2015). [22] Seifert SM & Schaechter JL & Hershorin ER & Lipshultz SE. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults. Journal of Pediatrics, 127(3), 511-528 (2011). [23] Lim YH & Kim SH. A Survey on Exposure Assessment of Caffein from Caffein Containing Beverages by College Students in Daejeon City and Chungnam Province in Korea. Korean Association of Human Ecology Symposium, 1(2), 113-114 (2011). [26] Kim SH. Coffee Consumption Behaviors, Dietary Habits, and Dietary Nutrient Intakes according to Coffee Intake Amount among University Students. Journal of Nutrition and Health, 50(3), 270-283 (2017). [27] Lee SH & Kang MK. The Investigation of High-caffeineated Beverages Consumption among College Students. The Convergent Research Society Among Humanities, Sociology, Science, and Technology, 15(1), 1-10 (2015). [28] Cho YH & Cho MK. The Impact of Alcohol and Caffeine Intake on Body Mass Index, Alcohol Use Disorder, and Quality of Sleep among University Freshmen. Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science, 17(4), 363-371 (2015). [29] Oh YJ. Consumption Status and Experience of Adverse Effects of High-caffeine Energy Drink among High School Students. 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