Articles 60
  • Multicultural Education of South Korea through the VIRTUAL REALITY
    By. Seongran Ha, Gyunyeol Park
    Abstract Purpose: The framework of online education is evolving from e-learning to XR-learning. As expectations for the educational effect and market growth of reality contents increase, the South Korean government has established related education policies and is making intensive investments. Generation C, Z, and Alpha learners, Digital Natives, are quickly responding and adapting to the concept of Metaverse. Thus, this study suggests the need for the transition of multicultural education in line with the changes in social, educational technology, and intends to present a rough direction of multicultural education. Method: This study used the approach of literature review and document analysis. The results of this study should be supplemented by quantitative and qualitative studies in the future. For a literature-oriented approach, refer to the government agencies' presentation materials and academic studies. Document survey is mainly related to cyber education materials presented on the Internet and various resources. Results: This study presented three ways of multicultural education using VR: First, 'Korean Culture Experience Program' offering experience of traditional Korean culture or historical facts; Second, 'Korean Life Adaptation Program' to settle down in Korean life including markets, banks, or community service centers; Third, 'education program for multicultural understanding and sensitivity' providing virtual cases of language barrier, social exclusion, and discrimination. In reality, there are still problems that require a lot of investment in content formulation, equipment purchase, maintenance, etc., and securing quality of content and finding suitable education methods. Conclusion: This study aims to present the direction of multicultural education in Korea using the virtual reality. Producing feasible contents needs expensive and very complicated procedures. This study proposes a basic concept how multicultural education in Korean society can be made in virtual space. These VR contents have the advantage of being able to be an education suitable for the actual environment because they have the advantage of allowing learners to experience and discuss directly in virtual spaces. To this end, there remain challenges to overcome both ethical issues and budget problems of developing high-level contents. [Keywords] Online Education, E-Learning, XR-Learning, Metaverse, Multicultural Education References [3] Choi JO. Effects of Family Crisis on Offline School Bullying in Elementary School Students in Korea: Mediating Effects of ADHD Symptoms, Cyber Bullying Victimization, and Anger. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(1), 43-57 (2020). [Article] [4] Ha KW. Changes in Private Security Industry according to the Enactment and Amendments of South Korean “Security Services Industry Act”. International Journal of Criminal Study, 3(2), 23-29 (2018). [Article] [5] Lee JY. A Proposal of Webhard Monitoring System against Cyber Sexual Violence. International Journal of Police and Policing, 5(1), 8-15 (2020). [Article] [6] Lee S. AI-based Cybersecurity: Benefits and Limitations. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(1), 18-28 (2021). [Article] [7] Song SE. Internet Gambling Policy: Prohibition Versus Legalization. International Journal of Justice & Law, 2(2), 22-27 (2017). [Article] [8] Kim TW & Park GY & Seo ES. IR4.0 and Ethical Tasks of AI. Robotics & AI Ethics, 4(2), 6-13 (2019). [Article] [11] Shin SH & Him HJ. Study on the Effects of Art Appreciation Class on Multicultural Acceptability: Focused on High School Using Virtual Reality. Journal of Product Research, 37(5), 233-243 (2019). [12] Kim KS & Song EJ. Virtual Reality Program Model for Trauma Intervention in Multi-cultural Ado-lescents. Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, 21(2), 361-366 (2017). [15] Ha SR & Park GY. Multicultural Society and Multicultural Education. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 21, 12(4), 2239-2249 (2021). [16] Lee HJ. Virtual Reality and Human Body. Identity and Interaction. Cogito, 91(1), 7-26 (2020). [21] Ahn SJ & Le AMT & Baileson J. The Effect of Embodied Experiences on Self-other Merging, Attitude, and Helping Behavior. Media Psychology, 16(1), 7-38 (2013). [25] Borenstein J & Howard A. Emerging Challenges in AI and the Need for AI Ethics Education. AI and Ethics, 1(1), 61-65 (2021). [26] Dubov A & Shoptawb S. The Value and Ethics of Using Technology to Contain the Covid-19 Epi-demic. The American Journal of Bioethics, 20(7), 1-5 (2020). [27] Maccari L & Cagno V. Do We Need a Contact Tracing App?. Computer Communications, 166, 9-18 (2021). [28] Owen R & Macnaghten P & Stilgoe J. Responsible Research and Innovation: From Science in So-ciety to Science for Society, with Society. Science and Public Policy, 39(6), 751-760 (2012). [29] Rigby MJ. Ethical Dimensions of Using Artificial Intelligence in Health Care. AMA Journal of Ethics, 21(2), 121-124 (2019). [30] Li Y & Park G. AI Ethics and Privacy Right. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 27-33 (2020). [Article] [31] Kim Y & Park G. Rubrics and Schoolwide Approach to the Character Education and Some Impli-cations to AI-based Character Education. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 19-26 (2020). [Article] [32] Kim H & Park G. Ethical Issues on AI Equipped Combat Robots. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 1-7 (2020). [Article] [13] Edgar D. Audio-visual Methods in Teaching. Dryden (1969). [14] Jason J. The VR Book: Human-centered Design for Virtual Reality. Morgan & Claypool (2015). [23] Bailenson J. Fearful but Attractive-humanistic Imagination of Cognition and Experience Opened by Virtual Reality. Dongasiabook (2019). [1] Ministry of Science and ICT. 5G+ Strategy to Realize Innovative Growth. The Government the Re-public of Korea (2019). [2] Beom WT & Kim JY & Kim NJ. Analysis of Policy Trends and Case Studies of Realistic Educational Contents Using VR•AR. Issue Report 2019-15, National IT Industry Promotion Agency, 1-19 (2019). [9] Park JH. The Upcoming Metabus Age, Directions and Implications of Next Generation Content Industry. KIET Industrial Economic (2021). [10] Busan Metropolitan City Office of Education. Busan School Board's Metaverse-based Business Agreement with Unity Korea (2021). [17] (2019). [18] Official Blog of Ggyeongsangbuk-do. Digital Museum VR Experience. Naver Blog (2020). [19] (2021). [20] (2021). [22] Shashkevich A. Virtual Reality can Help Make People more Compassionate Compared to Other Media. New Stanford Study Finds (2018). [24] (2021). ? Source:
  • A Study on the Utilization of PUBLIC VALUES of the Zentangle Pattern and the Development of Nail Design
    By. Mira Heo, Miso Kim, Eunmi Choi
    Abstract Purpose: Nail art today has taken its place as a genre of art to which individual and creative senses are added beyond the simple example of cutting finger and toe nails. With a view to expand the design of the Zentangle Pattern to the aspect of nail art by developing unique designs by utilizing the Zentangle Pattern via reflecting the preference of the modern people perennially seeking new objects, the purpose lies with developing a stimulus which presents only the main design by utilizing elements of reinforcement, thereby taking its place as a public value. Method: As for the research method, the formative elements of the Zentangle Pattern were considered, and the 4 elements of dot, line, plane, and shape were utilized through the related previous papers and books, and based on the books carrying the contents similar to the curriculum taught at of the United States, 42 pieces of main designs were presented with 7 points for 6 special characteristic for each reinforcement. Results: As a consequent of which, the 6 special characteristics for each reinforcement of the Zentangle Pattern could be applied to the nail design in various angles to present possibilities of design. Conclusion: Through this study, it was possible to confirm the potential for expanding the area of design by being utilized as a design which may elevate the consumers’ satisfaction with visually unique and creative designs in the field of nail industry. It is expected that, based on the researcher's 42 pieces of main designs, various designs for the development of reconfigurable designs and new expressive techniques will become a subject of study which may carry a public value. [Keywords] Zentangle, Nail Design, Nail Art, Gel Nail, Pattern Nail References [1] Kim NH & Choi JS & Baek SN. A Study on the Nail Art Design of Andy Warhol's Works to Protect Human Nail Disaster. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 6(1), 36-44 (2021). [Article] [2] Shin WS. A Study of Nail Digital Design Using Kusama Yayoi’s Formative Aspects. Korean Society of Beauty and Art, 17(2), 11-11 (2016). [3] Yun HS. A Convergence Study on Korean Traditional Plant Patterns and 'Zentangle Art'. Journal of Digital Convergence, 17(4), 285-290 (2019). [4] Kim JH & Han YH. A Study on Expression through the Convergence of Zentangle Art and Fashion Drawing. The Korean Society of Science & Art, 39(3), 77-87 (2021). [5] Kim JW & Han SY & Chang MS. Study on Nail Art Designs Using the Characteristics of Cartoon Images in Neo-pop Art. Jounal of the Korean Society of Cosmetology, 23(6), 1189-1198 (2017). [6] Ji SH & Do JY. Analysis of Vanitas Art-based Nail Design. Korean Society of Beauty and Art, 20(3), 207-217 (2019). [7] Lee JW & Choi JS & Yeom JY. Analysis of Properties of Deconstruction & Hair Expression Com-ponents in Maison Margiela Collection. Public Value, 6(1), 38-50 (2021). [Article] [8] Yeo IG & Lee JB & Kim JY. Effect of Fun of Elderly Women Participating in Health Qigong on Re-silience. Kinesiology, 6(1), 30-38 (2021). [Article] [9] Lee CH & Lee JB & Na EG. Psychological Health Relation between Perception, Appearance Satis-faction, and Happiness of Women Participating in Jewelry Therapy. Protection Convergence, 16(1), 12-21 (2021).  [Article] [10] Ahn SJ & Chung JY. A Study: Body Painting Utilization of Trompe-l`oeil Methodology in Adver-tisements. Korean Society of Basic Design & Art, 12(3), 283-293 (2011). [11] Kang KY. A Study on Textile Design Reflecting the Figurative Features of Victor Visarely. Korean Society of Basic Design & Art, 18(1), 1-14 (2017). [12] Jeung MJ & Choi KS. Study on Figurative Art Work Using Traditional Korean Paper. Journal of Oriental Art, 21, 403-435 (2013). [13] Park KS. A Study on Contemporary Ceramic Flower Vase -Focused on the Relation to Floral Art-. The Korean Society of Floral Art & Design, 27, 3-17 (2012). [14] Kim JK. Research on Expressing Ceramic Art based on Formal Principles of Modeling. Korea Society of Ceramic Art, 3(1), 123-135 (2006). [15] Kim MO. Wassily Kandinsky Painting and Formative Theory. The Society of Korea Illusart, 18(1), 13-20 (2015). [16] You SM & Chung JY. A Study of Nail Design Using the Form Fundamental Design -Focus on Vivid Color-. Korean Society of Basic Design & Art, 12(3), 335-345 (2011). [17] Cho MJ. A Study on the Nail Art Using Point, Line, and Plane. Journal of the Korean Society Design Culture, 18(2), 462-472 (2012). [18] Shin EJ & Chung JW. A Study on the Lighting of Ceramics Using the Modeling Elements of Spatial Composition -Focused on James Turrell's Works-. Korean Society of Basic Design & Art, 21(6), 233-244 (2020). [19] Kim SW & Keum KS. A Study on Fashion Design Using Geometric Pattern. Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, 52(1), 53-67 (2002). [20] Kim EJ & Kim YC. A Study on the Union of Opposites on the Circle as Symbolic Element. Korean Society of Basic Design & Art, 13(1), 109-117 (2012). [21] Hwang IH. Study on Development of Photo Coloring Book for the Elderly. Journal of Integrated Design Research, 17(1), 65-77 (2018). [22] Lee HS. The Effect of Integrated Art Play Utilizing Safety-related Picture Books on the Under-standing of Stories of Children with Disabilities. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 6(1), 28-40 (2021). [Article] [23] Yin MY. Symbolic Explanation for the Identity Analysis of Chinese Paper-cut Art. Art Journal, 14, 77-95 (2014). [24] Kim JS & Ha JS. Analysis on Characteristics of Fashion Style Presentation according to the Type of Persona Manifestation. Journal of the Korean Society of Fashion Design, 17(2), 1-19 (2017). [25] Park ED. A Comparative Study on the Vocabulary of Design Elements and Principles in Korean and American Art Textbooks. The Society of Korea Illusart, 12(3), 1-12 (2009). [26] Park JC. Design Research of Ornaments Applying the Formability of Gem Cuts -Focusing on Line Formability-. Journal of Digital Convergence, 19(3), 303-311 (2021). ? Source:
  • A Study on the DISASTER Body Response Measurement System Using VR
    By. Changsoo Kim
    Abstract Purpose: In this study, a number of industrial accidents occur, and occupational accidents caused by post-traumatic stress disorder. As a result of this occupational accident, many workers are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Numerous industrial accidents occur every year, and the approval of occupational accidents caused by post-traumatic stress disorder is increasing. In particular, in the case of industrial accident trauma, workers are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder that is more severe than other trauma patients in that workers are continuously re-exposed to the accident scene and re-experienced the accident. Method: Therefore, exposure treatment techniques for patients suffering industrial acci-dent trauma using VR(virtual reality) and measurement systems introduction was necessary. Using the disaster and disaster contents developed through this research and development, measure user reaction and secure data on the degree and timing of user reaction according to each accident event, so that it is possible to obtain reference data for appropriate exposure setting according to the level of trauma became. As a methodology, a population composition for setting the exposure level and a hypothesis design for verification and a scenario design for hypothesis testing were established. In addition, the user reaction data for each accident event in the virtual experience was regarded as heart rate data, and a sensor and related system design that can measure data through the experiment were made, and the experiment was analyzed according to the scenario. Results: So, by measuring the heart rate of the experimenter using VR(virtual reality) to experience a traumatic disaster, Measuring heart rate variability(HRV) by disaster and environmental factors and observing stress changes. It is expected that it will be possible to obtain data on the extent to which the user reacts in a specific disaster by securing a measurement value of how and at what point in time the user reacts. Conclusion: This made it possible to analyze the post-traumatic disability later. In particular, through the results of this experiment, it was possible to present the need for an indicator that can objectively evaluate the effectiveness of VR content for education and objective data of the indicator. In addition, a lot of data such as stability, movement, reaction, etc. were secured as basic indicators for the development of the “Crane VR Education Content” evaluation system. [Keywords] Virtual Reality, Occupational Accident, Trauma, HRV, Stress References [2] Palva JM & Palva S. Infra-slow Fuctuations in Electro-physiological Recordings, Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent Signals, and Psychophysical Time Series. Neuroimage, 62(4), 2201-2211 (2012). [3] Berger B & Omer S & Minarik T & Sterr A & Sauseng P. Interacting Memory Systems-does EEG Alpha Activity Respond to Semantic Long-term Memory Access in a Working Memory Task?. Biology, 4(1), 1-16 (2014). [4] Arns M & Conners CK & Kraemer HC. A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(5), 374-383 (2013). [7] Hiltune T & Kantola J & Elseoud AA & Lepola P & Suominen K & Starck T & Nikkinen J & Remes J & Tervonen O & Palva S & Kiviniemi V & Palva JM. Infra-slow EEG Fluctua Tions are Correlated with Resting-state Network Dynamics in fMRI. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(2), 356-362 (2014). [8] Mazaheri A & DiQuattro NE & Bengson J & Geng JJ. Pre-stimulus Activity Predicts the Winner of Top-down Vs Bottom-up Attentional Selection. Plos One, 6(2), 16243-16243 (2011). [12] Jensen O & Mazaheri A. Shaping Functional Architecture by Oscillatory Alpha Activity: Gating by Inhibition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4, 186-186 (2010). [13] Klimesch W. Alpha-band Oscillations, at Tention, and Centre Access to Stored Information. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(12), 606-617 (2012). [14] Jokisch D & Jensen O. Modulation of Gamma and Alpha Activity during a Working Memory Task Engaging the Dorsal or Ventral Stream. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(12), 3244-3251 (2007). [15] Thut G & Nietzel A & Brandt SA & Alvaro PL. Alpha-band Electro Encephaographic Activity Over Occipital Cortex in Dexes Visuospatial Attention Bias and Predicts Visual Target Detection. The Journal of Neuroscence, 26(37), 9494-9502 (2006). [16] Khanna P & Carmena JM. Oscillations, Beta Band Activity Across Motor Networks. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 32, 60-67 (2015). [17] Mima T & Nagamine T & Nakamura K & Shibasaki H. Attention Modulates both Primary and Second Somatosensory Cortical Activities in Humans: A Magneto Encephalographic Study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 80(4), 2215- 2221 (1998). [18] Pfurtscheller G & Woertz M & Müller G & Wriessnegger S & Pfurtscheller K. Contrasting Behavior of Beta Event-related Synchronization and Somatosensory Evoked Potential after Median Nerve Stimulation during Finger Manipulation in Man. Neuroscience Letters, 323(2), 113-116 (2002). [20] Clarke AR & Barry RJ & McCarthy R & Selikowitz M. EEG-defined Subtypes of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinical Neurophysilogy, 112(11), 2098-2105 (2001). [22] Choi J & Choi J. Development of Gamification Model for Flipped Learning. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 6(2), 68-79 (2021). [Article] [23] Bae DY & Lee KW. Relative Importance of Constituting Factors of Safety Culture -Focusing on Private Security in Republic of Korea-. International Journal of Criminal Study, 2(2), 1-5 (2017). [Article] [24] Ju JK & Bang HS & Kim JH & Kim JH. A Study on the Establishment of the Concept of a Vessel Constrained by Her Air Draft in Colreg. International Journal of Police and Policing, 2(2), 7-12 (2017).  [Article] [25] Seo J & Lee J & Heo B. A Biomechanical Analysis of the Closed Change Step Motion in Waltz by Pre-taping and Post-taping. Kinesiology, 6(2), 54-63 (2021). [Article] [26] Kim J & Lee J. Direction of Smart Healthcare Utilization in Korea's Non-medical Healthcare Service Area. Regulations, 6(2), 54-63 (2021). [Article] [5] Nunez L & Srinivasan R. Electric Fields of the Brain: The Neurophysics of EEG, Second Edition. Oxford University (2006). [6] Kropotov J. Quantitative EEG, Event-related Potentials and Neurotherapy. Academic (2010). [1] Hughes SW & Lorincz ML & Parri HR & Crunelli V. Infra-slow Oscillations in Thalamic Relay Nuclei: Basic Mechanisms and Significance to Health and Disease States. Progress in Brain Research (2011). [9] Ergenoglu T & Demiralp T & Bayraktaroglu Z & Ergen M & Beydagi H & Uresin Y. Alpha Rhythm of the EEG Moduates Visual Detection Performance in Humans. Cognitive Brain Research (2004). [10] Hanslmyr S & Gross J & Klimesch W & Shapirof KL. The Role of Alpha Oscillations in Temporal Attention. Brain Research Reviews (2011). [11] Klimesch W & Sauseng P & Hanslmayr S. EEG Alpha Oscillationsi the Inhibition-timing Hypothesis. Brain Research Reviews (2007). [19] (1999). [21] Takayuki H & Kiyoko Y. The Relaxation Biofeedback System with Computer and Heart Rate Variability Interaction. Technical Report of IEICE (2003). ? Source:
  • Increasing the SPACE SECURITY Power and Its Challenges for the Republic of Korea Air Force in the Era of the Fourth ..
    By. Jiwon Yun, Sangwoo Park
    Abstract Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to explore aerospace power development strategies promoted by the Republic of Korea Air Force(ROKAF), and to examine the necessity and tasks of strengthening space power, focusing on the main content of Air Force Quantum 5.0, an innovative task for ROKAF from the perspective of smart national defense innovation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution(4IR) era. The main contents of the 4IR and the concept of space power dealt with in Air Force Quantum 5.0 were set as the scope of research. Method: For better analysis, as part of case studies, the article is to analyze literature with a focus on research analysis materials regarding the concept of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, policy reports on Air Force Quantum 5.0 promoted by the ROKAF, and academic papers. Results: It is required for the ROKAF to establish an advanced power system for aerospace operations in response to future warfare, such as securing key leading technologies for weapon systems using 4IR technologies, identifying military capabilities and core forces, reflecting them in the future force integration, and promoting civil-military R&D cooperation systems. It also needs to establish a space command and take the lead in the future joint battlefield area in order to establish itself as a space powerhouse like the surrounding powers, including the United States and China. Conclusion: This article concluded that in order for the ROKAF to further respond to uncertain security threats, consider work innovation and combat power enhancement, overcome increasing challenge factors such as the deepening shortages of military service resources, and adapt to the future battle field environment, advanced 4IR technologies should be applied in all branches of the air force to ensure the military remains sophisticated and intelligent, and to speed up the promotion of high-efficient aerospace operation systems and defense operation environment. [Keywords] Era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Defense Innovation, Space Security, Aerospace Power, Air Force Quantum 5.0 References [1] Hwang SI. A Study on the Development Plans of Cyber Electronic Warfare for the Advancement of Aerospace Forces. Journal of Military Science Research, 71(1), 39-40 (2020). [2] Shin YD. Is There an Arms Race between South and North Korea?. International Journal of Justice & Law, 1(2), 9-15 (2016). [Article] [3] Kim J. Future Warfare and Artificial Intelligence Applications in the ROK Military: Problems and Alternatives. Robotics & Ethics, 6(2), 11-20 (2021). [Article] [5] Christopher C. Artificial Intelligence and the Future of War. Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies, 2(1), 55-60 (2019). [6] Krepon M. Space as a Strategic Asset Twilight War: The Folly of U.S Space Dominance, and the Politics of Space Security: Strategic Restraint and the Pursuit of National Interests. Nonproliferation Review, 15(3), 549-554 (2008). [7] Fabio T & Hao L. The Trump Administration and Outer Space: Promoting US Leadership or Heading towards Isolation?. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 72(5), 418-432 (2018). [9] Yun JW. Characteristics and Sustainability of Russian Military Reforms: Focusing on Putin’s Fourth Presidential Term and National Security Strategies. The Korean Journal of Area Studies, 36(3), 83-104 (2018). [10] Lee SS. Suggestions for ROK’s Building Space Power as Public Values. Public Value, 6(1), 14-37 (2021). [Article] [11] Hazelton JI. Drone Strikes and Grant Strategy: Toward a Political Understanding of the Uses of the Uses of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Attacks in US Security Policy. Journal of Strategic Studies, 40(1-2), 78-80 (2017). [13] Cho HJ & Park GY. North Korea Missile: Past, Present and Future. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 3(1), 1-5 (2018). [Article] [14] Lee SS. A Case Study of AI Defense Applications in Major Northeast Asian States and Strategies for Building a ROK’S AI-based National Defense System. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 6(1), 1-13 (2021).  [Article] [16] Patrick B & Esther C. Military Space Developments: Challenges and Opportunities for Defense and Industry, Hague Center for Strategic Studies. The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies Security Snapshot, 12(16), 3-3 (2020). [17] Rendleman JD. A Strategy for Space Assurance. Astropolitics, 8, 220-255 (2010). [18] Park GY. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula: Opportunities and Limitations. Public Value, 5(1), 29-38 (2020). [Article] [8] Seol HJ. National Space Development Policy and the Role of Air Force’ Industry-academia Collaboration Foundation. Chungnam National University (2019). [15] The ROKAF. Future Aerospace Power Development Initiative to Prepare for the 100th Anniversary of Its Foundation(Air Force Quantum 5.0). ROKAF (2020). [4] Park BK. East Asia’s Space Military Power Construction Trends and ROK’s Response Directions. INSS Research Report (2020). [12] McCall SM. National Security Space Launch. CRS Report (2020). ? Source:
  • Biden Administration’s APPROACHES to Denuclearizing the Korean Peninsula
    By. Sangsoo Lee
    Abstract Purpose: This article delves into the problems of the U.S. strategy for negotiations with North Korea based on Neo-liberalism and look briefly at the implications for its denuclearization policy on the Korean Peninsula. Method: This paper analyzes the problem of the US negotiations between the US and North Korea through the lens of Neo-liberalism. Neo-liberalism is a market-oriented economic and social policy approach that seeks to minimize government intervention, focus on the maximization of private companies, market expansion between countries. Results: The biggest problem of neo-liberalistic ways of negotiation with North Korea is first, the minimization of government intervention, second, the pursuit of military-industrial complex interests with a focus on private corporate efficiency, and thirdly, China's alienation due to the strengthening of common value shared alliance networks. Conclusion: First of all, it is necessary to maximize the role of the U.S. government to revitalize the negotiations on the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, which has been strained by this neo-liberal approach of the U.S. An active engagement policy is desirable, and if necessary, it needs to consider a summit for phased denuclearization. Second, the control of the profit-seeking of military-industrial complexes. Despite the signing of the 9.19 inter-Korean military agreement, South Korea is making efforts to purchase state-of-the-art weapons from the U.S. to retrieve wartime operational control. This is causing a backlash from North Korea, giving an excuse to be intransigent in denuclearization negotiations. Third, China should be embraced as an active partner in the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. China's cooperation is essential to denuclearize the Korean Peninsula, but the strengthening of the U.S.-centered value alliance will lead to China's isolation, which will prevent China from cooperating with North Korea's denuclearization. Fourth, policies that consider the weak are needed to overcome the harmful effects of the infinite competition of neo-liberalism. North Korea is inferior to the U.S. and its allies economically and militarily. [Keywords] Biden Administration, Negotiation, State Intervention, Sanctions, Strategic Patient References [2] Hong S. The Biden Administration's Policy on the Korean Peninsula and Our Responses. Korea and Global Affairs, 5(3), 77-78 (2021). [5] Jun B. An Evaluation of Trump's North Korean Nuclear Diplomacy and Tasks of the Biden Administration's North Korean Nuclear Negotiations. National Strategy, 27(2), 150-152 (2021). [6] Yoon D. The Biden Administration's East Asia-pacific Strategy and Korea-US Relations: Strategic Contradiction of Engagement and Hedging. Korea and World Politics, 37(2), 183-216 (2021). [8] Lee S. Spread of the Covid-19 and the Fall of Neoliberalism: State's Increased Police Role. Regula-tions, 6(1), 1-9 (2021). [Article] [9] Toby D & Kim Y. Negotiating Nuclear Arms Control with North Korea: Why and How? The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 33(1), 3-4 (2021). [10] Ko Y. Groping for the Denuclearization and Peace Settlement in the Korean Peninsula in the In-ternational Order of the Thucydides Trap. Korea Presbyterian of Theology, 51(2), 161-162 (2019). [11] Danielle C. A Nuclear North Korea and the Limitations of US Security Perspective. Critical Studies on Security, 5(3), 320-321 (2017). [12] Hongyu Z & Kevin W. A Nuclear-armed North Korea without ICBMs: The Best Achievable Objective. The Nonproliferation Review, 26(1-2), 146-147 (2019). [13] Kim I. Trump Power: Maximum Pressure and China's Sanctions Enforcement against North Korea. The Pacific Review, 33(1), 113-114 (2020). [14] Park J. A Study on the Use of Military Forces in the North Korean Regime. International Journal of Military Affairs, 4(2), 18-24 (2019).  [Article] [15] Lee S. The Strategies of ROK's Defense Reform with Special Reference to the Peace Process and Arms Control. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(2), 1-8 (2020). [Article] [16] Chung K. Building a Peace Regime on the Korean Peninsula and the Future of UNC. The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 31(4), 483-484 (2019). [18] Lai M. Haven Under Erasure?: Hong Kong, Global Asia, and Human Rights. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 38(2), 300-301 (2008). [19] Salvador SF & Regilme J. Beyond Paradigms: Understanding the South China Sea Dispute Using Analytic Eclecticism. International Studies, 55(3), 225-226 (2018). [20] Lee S. The Trump Administration's Negotiation Strategy toward the North Korean Nuclear Crisis: South Korea's Response. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 6(1), 10-17 (2021). [Article] [22] Jo S. The United Nation's Response Strategy for North Korea's Denuclearization. International Journal of Military Affairs, 3(2), 20-28 (2018). [Article] [7] Roy RK & Arthur D & Tomas DW. Neoliberalism: National and Regional Experiments with Global Ideas. Routledge (2007). [17] Andrew B. Washington Rules. Metropolitan Books (2010). [1] (2021). [3] (2021). [4] (2021). [21] (2021). ? Source:
  • A Study on the Analysis of OVERSEAS MARKET ENTRY Strategy by Growth Stage for ICT Companies of the Post-COVID-19 Era
    By. Sanghee Park, Kiyoon Kim
    Abstract Purpose: Given the expansion of online and contactless centric corporate activities due to COVID-19, in order to derive a systematic strategy for the Korean ICT companies' contactless manner of overseas market entry, it is intended to present the differences among strategies according to the growth stage of the ICT companies. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted by targeting major ICT companies of Korea. Based on which, attempt has been made to verify the status of overseas market entry and the level of technological development of the major Korean ICT companies, while verifying the strategies required for the overseas market entry by each growth stage. Results: The manner of overseas market entry turned out to vary depending on each company's growth stage. Accordingly, in the survey of the difficulties during the overseas market entry, varying difficulties were experienced depending on the growth stage of the company. The ICT companies of the entry stage noted the issue of finding customers as a difficulty, and the ICT companies of the growth and maturity stages noted the “lack of trade specialists.” It was also analyzed that the awareness of government support was low, demonstrating the limitations of comprehensive government support policies. Lastly, it was analyzed that differences arose in the current status of responding to COVID-19 and the difficulties depending on the growth stage of the company. It was verified that the awareness of the government's support policy for the ICT companies was low, which was not properly utilized, thereby further confirming that a policy alternative is needed. Conclusion: Consequently, it is necessary to change the overseas market entry support policy for the ICT companies focused on the overseas base centers, which have previously been operated primarily by the suppliers, to the consumer centric, whereby the ICT companies could expand by considering the overseas market entry together from the early stage of growth. [Keywords] ICT Company, Expansion Strategy, COVID-19, Overseas Market, Effectuation Theory References [1] Ha J. A Study on the Post-corona Security Industry. Regulations, 6(1), 55-62 (2021). [Article] [2] Lee S. Spread of the Covid-19 and the Fall of Neoliberalism: State's Increased Police Role. Regulations, 6(1), 1-9 (2021). [Article] [3] Joo JH. The Model and Strategy of Online Business based on Customer Value: Value Factors Affecting Customer's Reuse Intention. Korean Management Review, 33(4), 1157-1184 (2004). [4] Kang K & Nam K & Kim J & Ju S &Kim H. Development of ICT-based Simulation Scenarios against the Crisis of Dyspnea Patients. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 4(1), 28-36 (2019). [Article] [5] Kim J & Lee J. Direction of Smart Healthcare Utilization in Korea's Non-medical Healthcare Service Area. Regulations, 6(2), 34-43 (2021). [Article] [6] Park S & Kim K & Jung H & Hyun D. A Study on the Overseas Expansion Strategy of Korean ICT Companies of the Post-corona Era: Focusing on Case Studies of ICT Companies. Journal of Digital Convergence, 19(11), 1-13 (2021). [7] McDougall PP & Shane S & Oviatt BM. Expanding the Formation of International New Ventures: The Limits of Theories from International Business Research. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(6), 469-487 (1994). [8] McDougall PP & Oviatt BMt & Shrander RC. A Comparison of International and Domestic New Ventures. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1, 297-311 (2003). [10] Kim S & Kim P & Na S. The Internationalization Strategies for Venture Business. Journal of Distribution Science, 7(3), 101-122 (2009). [12] Sarasvathy SD. Causation and Effectuation: Toward a Theoretical Shift from Economic Inevitability to Entrepreneurial Contingency. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 243-263 (2001). [13] Meyer K & Skak A. Networks, Serendipity and SME Entry into Eastern Europe. European Management Journal, 20(2), 179-188 (2002). [14] Anderson S. International Entrepreneurship, Born Global and the Theory of Effectuation. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 18(3), 627-643 (2011). [16] Di Domenico M & Haugh H & Tracey P. Social Bricolage: Theorizing Social Value Creation in Social Enterprises. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 681-703 (2010). [17] Hwang K & Moon H & Bae M. The Effects of the Service Quality of the TSO(Trade Support Organization) on the Utilization, Satisfaction and Performance of the Exporting Firms. International Commerce and Information Review, 13(3), 275 -298 (2011). [18] Bae M & Moon H. A Study on the Factors for Service Utilization of Trade Support Organizations and Its Performance in Korean Small and Medium Sized Exporting Firms. Korea Trade Review, 37(5), 347-368 (2012). [19] Evers N & O’Gorman C. Improvised Internationalization in New Ventures: The Role of Prior Knowledge and Networks. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23, 1-26 (2010). [21] Kim J. The Foreign Market Performance of International New Ventures: Focusing on Network Market Orientation and Dynamic Capabilities. International Business Review, 18(2), 161-174 (2019). [22] Kim J. The Impacts of Network Market Orientation and Knowledge Capability on Competitive Advantage and Foreign Market Performance of International New Ventures. Korean Management Consulting Review, 20(3), 153-166 (2020). [23] Seo D & Kim B. A Study on Trend of Overseas Expansion Strategy Research. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 11(1), 279-284 (2020). [24] Jung Y & Ryoo S & Cheng C. A Study on the Operational Factors of Case Study for Intenalization in the Business Continuity Management System in Commercial Bank. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 6(2), 56-67 (2021). [Article] [25] Cavusgil ST & Nevin JR. Internal Determinants of Export Marketing Behavior: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 114-119 (1981). [26] Knight G & Kim D. International Business Competence and Contemporary Firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(2), 255-273 (2009). [27] Park K & Kim I & Ahn J. A Study on Export Promotion Program at the Korean Small-medium Exporters. International Business Review, 14(2), 1-25 (2010). [28] Moon H & Bae M & Hwang K. The Impacts of the Service Quality of the Trade Promotion Agency on the Performance of Seoul Metropolitan and Local Exporting Firms. International Commerce and Information Review, 17(1), 89-114 (2015). [29] Choi J. A Study on the Efficiency of the Export Support Policy for the SME in Korea. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 18(3), 114-123 (2018). [30] Lee I & Park W. A Study on the Effect of Export Support Policy to Export Performance: Focusing on Small-medium Start-up Enterprises in Gyeonggi Area, Asia-pacific. Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 11(5), 141-151 (2016). [31] Lee S. The Korean Government Export Promotion for Manufacturing SMEs: A Gap Analysis. International Business Journal, 18(3), 1-26 (2007). [9] Greiner LE. Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow. Harvard Business Review (1998). [11] Ministry of SMEs and Startups•Korea Technology and Information Promotion Agency for SMEs. Nice Tongsang (2018). [15] Sarasvathy SD. Effectuation: Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise. Edward Elgar (2008). [20] Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport. A Study on How to Nurture Manpower for Smart City Industry Revitalization and Overseas Market Entry (2018). [32] Rugman AM & Lecraw DJ & Booth LD. 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  • A Study on the Status and Recognition of SPORTS Welfare Using Big Data Analysis
    By. Hyoungkeun Oh
    Abstract Purpose: To identify public Recognition and areas of interest in sports welfare through big data related analytical techniques, and to provide basic data required for establishing sports welfare policies. Method: Keyword frequency analysis, sentiment analysis, semantic network analysis,, and CONCOR analysis were performed. Results: The public was demonstrated the highest frequency and derived as a key keyword. As keywords related to the benefit from sports welfare support, health, physical strength, and happiness were derived, and words related to the welfare of athletes such as athletes, competitions, events, games, and leaders appeared. As a result of sentiment analysis, the positive rate(79.52%) was found to be very high. Third, as a result of the semantic network analysis, keywords such as the public, health, sports activities, support, and service are located in the center of the network, and are confirmed as major keywords. As a result of the CONCOR analysis, ‘National Fitness 100’, ‘Sports participation Voucher’, and ‘Participation Policy of Sports for all ’ were formed. Conclusion: The public recognition and areas of interest in sports welfare were examined and Identified based on the results of this research. That could provide the basic data required for devising the sports welfare policies. [Keywords] Sports Welfare, Big Data, Text Mining, Sentiment Analysis, CONCOR Analysis References [1] Kim SK. A Study on the Constitutional Assignments on Sport Welfare. The Korean Association of Sports Law, 10(1), 125-147 (2007). [3] Kim MK & Park SJ & Park BK. An Analysis of Priority Assessment on Policy Factor for Revitalization of Sports Welfare Culture. Journal of Education & Culture, 24(4), 633-658 (2018). [5] Kim KI & Kim ML & Lee JH. Sports Welfare: Developing the Conception and the Model for the Un-derprivileged. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 40(1), 197-295 (2010). [6] Hong JS & Oh IK. Image Difference of Before and After an Incident Using Social Big Data Analysis: Focusing on a Ramp Return of “K” Airline. The Tourism Sciences Society of Korea, 30(6), 119-113 (2016). [7] Lee YJ & Yoon JH. A Study on Utilizing SNS Big Data in the Tourism Studies: Based on an Analysis of Key Words for Tourism Information Search. Tourism Sciences Society of Korea, 28(3), 5-14 (2014). [8] Choi HJ & Choi YC. A Study on Children`s Creativity and Character based on Big Data. Journal of Children's Literature and Education, 17(4), 601-627 (2016). [9] Lee JH & Lee JM & Kim WK & Kim HK. A Study on Perception of Swimsuit Using Big Data Text-mining Analysis. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 28(1), 31-46 (2017). [10] Han SH. An Analysis of News Report Characteristics on Archives & Records Management for the Press in Korea: Based on 1999~2018 News Big Data. Journal of the Korean Society for Information Management, 35(3), 41-75 (2018). [11] Kim HS. Suggestion of Building the AI Code of Ethics through Deep Learning and Big Data Based AI. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(1), 29-34 (2021). [Article] [12] Lee SC & Kim DC. Policing against and Characteristic of Korean Organize Crime: Using Big Data. International Journal of Police and Policing, 3(1), 25-31 (2018). [Article] [13] Lee JY. A Study on Anti-terror System Using Big Data Based. International Journal of Criminal Study, 3(2), 18-22 (2018). [Article] [14] Park HH. Police Activities in the Age of Big Data Utilization. International Journal of Protection, Security & Investigation, 3(1), 14-17 (2018). [Article] [15] Kim MC & Ryu SH. The Knowledge Structure Analysis on Para Taekwondo with Keyword Network Analysis. Kinesiology, 6(2), 64-74 (2021). [Article] [17] Oh HK. A Study on the Perception Change in Taekwondo by Big Data Analysis. Journal of Korean Society of Sport Policy, 17(4), 161-174 (2019). [18] Lee JM. A Study on Home Training Market Prospect and Development Plan Using Big Data Analysis. The Korean Journal of Physical Education, 60(1), 189-202 (2021). [19] Oh SW & Han JW & Kim MS. A Social Big Data Analysis on Sport Participation. Korean Journal of Sport Management, 25(2), 18-30 (2020). [20] Lim YH & Kim HB. A Study on the Sentiment Analysis Using Big Data of Hotels Online Review. Korean Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 28(7), 105-123 (2019). [21] Choi YJ & Kweon SH. A Semantic Network Analysis of the Newspaper Articles on Big Data. Journal of Cybercommunication Academic Society, 31(1), 241-286 (2014). [22] Oh IK & Lee TS & Chon CN. A Study on Awareness of Korea Tourism through Big Data Analysis. The Tourism Sciences Society of Korea, 39(10), 107-126 (2015). [23] Kim YW & Oh SH. Meta-analysis of the Relationship between Exercise Participants' Physical Self-concept and Happiness. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 56(3), 179-191 (2017). [25] Kim YR. The Status and Future Development Plans of Korean National Fitness Award 100 Program. Journal of Korean Society of Sport Policy, 17(4), 161-174 (2019). [28] Kim JS & Kim KI. Sustainable Development Plan by Analyzing the Operation Status of the Mem-bership Facilities for Sports Lecture Voucher. Journal of Korean Society of Sport Policy, 16(4), 105-119 (2018). [29] Choi HD. Analysis of the Sports Welfare Service Delivery System for the Sports Vouchers. Journal of the Korea Entertainment Industry Association, 14(5), 131-146 (2020). [2] Noh YK & Kim YR & Kim KI & Jo HJ & Lee YS & Jo WY & Y JY. A Study on Concept and Policy Imple-mentation of Sport Welfare. Korea Institute of Sport Science (2015). [4] Korea Institute of Sport Science. 2030 Sport Vision (2018). [16] Kim MS & Yoo ED & Kim SH & Ko KJ & Shin SY & Park SY & Kim MS. A Policy Demand Analysis for Sport for All Social Big Data Analysis. Korea Institute of Sport Science (2019). [24] Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. 2020 National Sports Participation Survey in Korea (2020). [26] Korea Institute of Sport Science. Long-term Development Plan for National Fitness Award (2020). [27] Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. National Sports Participation Survey in Korea (2017). [30] Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. 2017 Sport White Paper (2019). [31] Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. 2019 Sport White Paper (2021). ? Source:
  • Kinematic Analysis of Jasebaqeo Pparunbal Dollyuchagi Motion in TAEKWONDO
    By. Seonghun Kim, Boseob Heo
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze pparun bal dollyuchagi(fast spin kick) motion of Taekwondo players, divided as outstanding ones and unskilled ones, to provide kinematic information on Taekwondo kicks and pparun bal dollyuchagi motion, and analyze differences in kicks between comparative groups. Method: The subjects of this study are Taekwondo players in their 20s who are attending the Taekwondo department at K University, five outstanding ones who have won prizes at domestic competitions and five unskilled ones who have not won competitions. Prior to the experiment, the subjects were asked for consent and explained how to proceed with the experiment. Kinematic data were collected using eight digital cameras. Statistical processing in this study was conducted using SPSS 22.0 software, and statistical analysis values were calculated as mean(M) and standard deviation(SD). An independent sample t-test was conducted to analyze the differences between groups, and the statistical significance probability was set to p<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the total execution time during the comparative analysis between the skilled and unskilled players of Jasebaqeo Pparunbal Dollyuchagi, and significant differences were found in the left and right variables of body center. Also, significant differences were found for each event in the hip, knee, and ankle joints of the lower extremities. Conclusion: According to the experiment, it is necessary to select an efficient hitting distance to improve the com- pleteness of the pparun bal dollyuchagi motion, and to hit the target, the width of the center of mass displace- ment on the left and right sides must be small and balanced without shaking. The knee joint and ankle joint should be quickly extended when striking a target, then vertically moved quickly to perform a perfect motion. This study is considered significant in that it provided fundamental data necessary for the efficient performance of kicks. [Keywords] Kinematic, Pparun Ball Dollyuchagi, Center of Mass, Time Required, Angle References [1] Tak H & Jang J & Kim J & Choi H. A Study on the Improvement of Competitiveness by Comparing Physical Fitness Factors among Demonstrators in Taekwondo Competition. Taekwond Journal of Kukkiwon, 10(4), 283-299 (2019). [2] Kim W & Lee Y. Performance Improvement Plans for Elementary School Taekwondo Kyorugi Ath-letes based on the Perception of Instructors. Taekwond Journal of Kukkiwon, 10(3), 211-299 (2019). [3] Lee G & Jung H. An Analysis of International Women's Taekwondo Competition Scoring Techniques. The World Society of Taekwondo Culture, 7, 1-11 (2013). [4] Kim D & Yeo H & Heo B. Analysis of the Kinetic Difference of Dolgaechagl between Taekwondo Kyorugi Players and Demonstrators. International Journal of Martial Arts, 6(2), 73-83 (2021). [Article] [5] Lystad RP & Pollard H & Graham PL. Epidemiology of Injuries in Competition Taekwondo: A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(6), 614-621 (2009). [6] Hong C & Kim K & Park J. Comparison of Physique and Physical Fitness of Taekwondo Gyeorugi and Wushu Santa Athletes. International Journal of Martial Arts, 6(2), 42-50 (2021). [Article] [7] Kim K & Kang S & Kwon M & Lee T. Kinematical Comparative Analysis of the Main Kicking Trace between Competition Players and Demonstration Team Members of Taekwondo. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 51(5), 659-668 (2012). [8] Park J & Oh C & Hong S & Shin E. Comparative Analysis of Kinematic Factors and GRF between Experts and Non-experts during a Forefoot Dollyeo Chagi Motion in Taekwondo. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 63, 723-733 (2016). [9] Ha O. The Analysis of Kicking Techniques and Points in Taekwondo Competition. Journal of Korea Sport Research, 16(5), 693-701 (2005). [10] Kim C & Kim S. Visual Search Strategies and Anticipation Ability between Expert and Novice Taekwondo Players. Korean Society of Sport Psychology, 23(3), 61-70 (2012). [11] Lee Y & Chin S. The Kinematic Analysis of Parhunbal Dolrhochagi Motion by Stance Pattern in Taekwondo. Journal of Korean Physical Education Association for Girls and Women, 25(2), 57-65 (2011). [12] Cho P & Chung N. Dynamic Analysis of the Lower Extremities during the Parhunbal Dolyeochagi in Taekwondo. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 10(2), 165-177 (2001). [13] Seo D & Lee Y. The Biomechanical Analysis of Low-leg Ankle Dollyu Chagi and Pparrunbal Dollyu chagi by Type of Taekwondo Stance. Journal of Martial Arts, 4(1), 141-164 (2010). [14] Lo Y & Park E. Vital-dynamic Analysis on Taekwondo Poomsae Yeopchagi. The World Society of Taekwondo Culture, 5, 1-47 (2012). [15] Ko J & Kim K & Chung N. Kinematical Comparative Analysis of the Jasebaqeo Dollyochagi Motion between Competition Players and Demonstration Team Members of Taekwondo.The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 22(4), 215-27 (2020). [16] Kang D & Kim H & Heo W & Lee K. Biomechanical Comparative Analysis of the Dominant and the Non-dominant according to the Type of Yeopchagi. Taekwondo Journal of Kukkiwon, 9(1), 197-217 (2018). [17] Hong A & So J. Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of Taekwondo Poomsae Side Kick according to Various Heights of the Target. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 29(3), 129-135 (2019). [18] Ha C & Choi M & Kim B. The Kinematical Analysis of the Taekwondo Sparring Players` Bandal Chagi in Kinematics. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 19(3), 22-30 (2008). [19] Kim J & Ham K. The Effect of Target Height on Stability Parameters during the Taekwondo Roundhouse Kick. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 60(1), 535-543 (2021). [20] Back N & So J & Choi S. Effects on Speed of Turning Kick Techniques in Different-weight-classes Proficient Taekwondo Athletes. The Korean Journal of Sport, 16(2), 597-603 (2018). [21] Ko J & Kim K & Chung N. Kinematical Comparative Analysis of the Jasebaqeo Dollyochagi Motion between Competition Players and Demonstration Team Members of Taekwondo.The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 22(4), 215-27 (2020). [22] Kim J & Ku H. Comparative Analysis of the Preliminary Footwork on Back Step Dolyeochagi in Taekwondo. Journal of Physical Education, 12(1), 1-17 (2016). [23] Seo J & Lee J & Heo B. A Biomechanical Analysis of the Closed Change Step Motion in Waltz by Pre-taping and Post-taping. Kinesiology, 6(2), 54-63 (2021). [Article] [24] Park D & Kang Y. The Biomechanical Analysis on the Characteristics of the Taekwondo Dolgaechagi Motion. The Korea Journal of Sports Science, 21(3), 1465-1475 (2012). [25] Ryu S. Biomechanical Analysis of Spin Kicks for Establishing the Technical Difficulty of Free Style Poomsaein Taekwondo. International Journal of Martial Arts, 6(1), 66-76 (2021). [Article] [26] Heo B & Lee J & Lee H. Kinematic Analysis of Reverse Rotation Dolgaechagi in Taekwondo. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(2), 81-88 (2020). [Article] [27] Heo B & Lee H & Kim Y. Kinetic Analysis of the Apkkoaseogi Yeopchagi in Taekwondo. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 61, 625-637 (2015). [32] Do H & Lee J & Back J. A Kinematic Analysis of the Last 3 Strides of the Run-up and Take-off Motion in the Men’s High Jump. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 41(5), 837-850 (2002). [33] Ha C & Kim J. The Kinematic Analysis of Momdollyo Huryo Chagi in Taekwondo. The Korea Journal of Sports Science, 18(1), 1135-1144 (2009). [36] Kim S. A Three Dimensional Analysis of the Joint Reaction Force of Side Kick in Taekwondo. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 39(2), 466-479 (2000). [28] Kim M. A Kinetical Analysis on the 540° Dwihuryeochagi of Taekwondo. Yongin University, Master’s Thesis (2014). [29] Jo H. A Comparative Analysis of Biomechanical the Facial Kick between Skilled and Less-skilled Middle School Taekwondo Players. Korea National University of Education, Master’s Thesis (2014). [30] Kim D. The Kinetic Comparative Analysis of the Ap-chagi Motion for Male Taekwondo Excellent and Non-excellent Players. Korea National University of Education, Master’s Thesis (2010). [31] Park H. A Kinetic Comparative Analysis of the Yeopchagi Motion of Taekwondo Kyeolugi and Poomsae Players. Korea National University of Education, Master’s Thesis (2010). [34] Kim G. A Kinematic Analysis of Duidbal-doooyeo Badachagi in the Taekwondo. Korea National Sport University, Doctoral Thesis (2008). [35] Park C. Biomechanical Analysis of Taekwondo Dolgaechagi Motion. Chungnam National University, Doctoral Thesis (2012). ? Source:
  • Directions for the Introduction of a Horizontal Fiscal Equalization System for the PROTECTION of Financially Lagging Area ..
    By. Sangbum Lee, Eungyeol Na
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to address the horizontal fiscal imbalance caused by the financial decentralization of local governments in Korea, and propose a direction for the introduction of the horizontal fiscal equalization system for the protection of financially lagging area. Method: To achieve the purpose of this study, the primary details of the first phase of financial decentralization were confirmed based on the theory of the financially lagging area and the horizontal mediation system. Furthermore, the regional synergistic development fund, which is a similar system currently implemented, and the direction of its introduction, were examined. Results: As a result of the study, first, the fact the regional balanced distribution is very much needed through the protection of financially lagging area and the regional solidarity was confirmed. Second, to introduce the horizontal fiscal equalization system, it is necessary to provide a direction for the introduction of the system which may achieve a basic agreement among the local governments, which are direct stakeholders. Third, the form of the system is introduced as a fund, and an expansionary system’s development plan based on the existing regional synergistic development fund system may be considered. Fourth, it is necessary to use the local consumption tax in terms of adequacy and stability of the financial resources and relaxing the tax revenue imbalance between the local governments in connection with the fiscal decentralization. Fifth, as for the distribution index, it is necessary to use to the farthest extent possible the variables related to population, population characteristics, per capita income, and area, which are among the variables beyond the control of local governments. Sixth, it is necessary for the principal of management to secure a sufficient size for the local government for spending the financial resources. Conclusion: The horizontal fiscal equalization system ought to, first, pursue a comprehensive development of balance for the region, and second, aim to address the gap in financial power between the regions, and third, be introduced in the form of complementing the vertical financial mediation. [Keywords] Financial Decentralization, Horizontal Fiscal Equalization System, Protection of Financially Lagging Area, Regional Synergistic Development Fund, Regional Solidarity References [1] Cho BH. A Study on the Role of Local Adjustment Grant in the Inter-governmental Fiscal Relation-ship. The Korean Association for Local Government Studies, 22(4), 157-183 (2019). [2] Han JM & Choi JS. Proposals for Tax Assignment between Provincial and Local Governments: Considering Fiscal Decentralization Policies. The Korea Journal of Local Public Finance, 25(1), 33-71 (2020). [3] Moon JJ & Hong KY. A Study on the Tax Source Adjustment Plan of National and Local Taxes for Refining Local Finance. Journal of Tax Studies, 20(4), 179-200 (2020). [4] Lim SS. Effects and Implications of Moon Jae-in Government’s First-phase Fiscal Decentralization on Incheon’s Revenue. Urban Research, 18, 223-260 (2020). [5] Kim SJ & Yoon TS. A Study on the Improvement Plans to Local Finance Mediation System Accord-ance with Changes in Local Fiscal Environment: Focusing on the Role of Local Finance Mediation System. Institute of Public Policy & Administration, 34(3), 29-52 (2020). [6] Kim TS & Lee JB. Analysis of Perception of Naturopathy Convergence and Utilization Satisfaction Perceived by Skin Beauty Industry Workers. Protection Convergence, 5(2), 94-102 (2020). [Article] [7] Kim JY & Lee JB. Direction of Smart Healthcare Utilization in Korea's Non-medical Healthcare Ser-vice Area. Regulations, 6(2), 34-43 (2021). [Article] [8] Kwon SA & Ryu SI. Measures for Strengthening Performance of Disaster and Safety Management System at Local Government. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 4(1), 1-7 (2019).  [Article] [9] Ha HJ & Lee JB & Lee OR & Hwang G & Park SR & Kwon HJ & Kim SS. Search for SNB-program Par-ticipation Experience and Constituent Factors for Health Intervention: Using the Colaizzi Method. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(2), 66-73 (2020). [Article] [10] Park KB. A Study on the Establish of Continuous and Long-term National Disaster Situation Sce-nario. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 6(2), 39-49 (2021). [Article] [11] Sa YJ. Human Capital Management Crisis for Indefinite-term Contract Workers in Local Govern-ment: Focusing on Education & Training and Performance. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(1), 1-12 (2020). [Article] [12] Jeong JH & Ju HJ. The Analysis of Change Process of Infectious Diseases Management System and Implications in China. The Korean Association for Comparative Government, 22(4), 99-125 (2018). [13] Son WB & Park YH. Crisis Management and Leadership of the Local Government in the Covid-19 Disaster: A Case Study of Gyeonggi Province. Gyeonggi Research Institute Review, 22(2), 1-25 (2020). [15] Lee JW. Fiscal Decentralization, Fiscal Conflicts, and the Conditions for Promoting Horizontal Fiscal Equalization System toward State. The Korea Journal of Local Public Finance, 25(3), 33-61 (2020). [16] Kim YC. A Study on the Balanced Regional Development Strategy through the Horizontal Equali-zation Development Fund Ⅱ. Journal of the Korean Geographical Society, 43(6), 914-937 (2008). [19] Hwang HD. A Study on the Stickiness of the Intergovernmental Fiscal Coordination System: Fo-cused on the Objectivity and Simplicity of the Allocation Formula. Journal of Local Government Studies, 33(2), 53-91 (2021). [20] Kim ST. Fiscal Equalization based on the Shared-tax Revenue in Korea. The Korean Journal of Local Government Studies, 19(2), 247-271 (2015). [21] Cho KH. A Study on the SGA Grant Using Gini Coefficient Decomposition Method: Focusing on Abolition of Priority Distribution System and Change of Allocation Standard. The Korea Journal of Local Public Finance, 23(2), 179-206 (2018). [22] Kwon KD & Cho JY & Cho KJ & Lee KW. A Study on Sustainability of Coexistent Local Development Fund: Focused on Comparison between Metropolitan and Non-metropolitan Area. Institute of Public Policy & Administration, 31(4), 367-394 (2017). [23] Kim TY & Park KH. A Study on the Collaborative Fiscal Governance Model in Korea: An Alternative of Redistributing the Local Consumption Tax Revenue among Local Governments. The Korea Journal of Local Public Finance, 18(3), 61-89 (2013). [24] Han JM & Lee SH & Kim KM & Lee SI. Improvements of Performance Management of the Fund for Mutual Development of Municipalities in Korea. The Korea Journal of Local Public Finance, 26(1), 153-196 (2021). [25] Sohn HJ. Restructuring the Fiscal Assignment System between the Central and Local Governments for Fiscal Decentralization. Korean Governance Review, 15(2), 157-185 (2008). [26] Choi JE & Jeon JS & Jin JB. The Effects of the Financial Adjustment System on the Equity. The Korea Journal of Local Public Finance, 23(2), 151-177 (2018). [27] Cho MK & Kim Y. The Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Regional Economic Growth. Journal of the Korean Urban Management Association, 27(2), 263-286 (2014). [28] Bok MS. An Analysis on Improvement of Horizontal Equity by Vertical Financial Adjustment: In Aspect of the Changes of Gini Coefficient. The Korean Association for Local Government & Admin-istration Studies, 30(3), 73-94 (2016). [29] Park BH. A Scheme to Improve Equity among Local Government Revenue in Intergovernmental Fiscal Coordination System. The Korea Journal of Local Public Finance, 23(2), 111-149 (2018). [30] Lee SB. A Study on Improvement Strategy of Uppertier and Lowertier Local Governments’ Mu-nicipal/Provincial Subsidy System. Korean Local Government Law Association, 19(4), 165-195 (2019). [14] Lim Sl. A Study on the Introduction of the Horizontal Fiscal Equalization System. Korea Institute of Local Finance Report (2018). [17] Song JY & Park SY & Kim SK. A Study on the Feasibility Evaluation Method for Local Investment Projects Considering Balanced Regional Development. The Korea Research Institute for Local Administration (2019). [18] Ministry of the Interior and Safety. Summary of Local Budget for Fiscal Year(Ⅰ) (2021). ? Source:
  • Current Status of COVID-19 Outbreak and Vaccination in the Republic of Korea
    By. Myoungryu Kim, Jueun Kwon, Boksil Hong
    Abstract Purpose: This study examines the current status of COVID-19 vaccination in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, we investigate the currently approved COVID-19 vaccines and their properties, COVID-19 vaccine prioritization guidance and timeline, and the status of adverse events after the COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, we examine the SARS-CoV-2 variants and the current prevalent variants in the Republic of Korea. Method: This study was conducted on Web-based searches about the latest updates COVID-19 from the World Health Organization, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. In addition, we searched for the “COVID-19 OR vaccines” in PubMed and then reviewed the selected articles regarding COVID-19 vaccines, prioritization guidance, adverse effects, and variants. Results: To date, 4 COVID-19 vaccines have been received regulatory approval in the Republic of Korea. To promote stable COVID-19 vaccination, the COVID-19 Vaccination Promotion Task Force announced the order of COVID-19 vaccine distribution and vaccination schedules from the first and the third quarter of 2021, intending to complete the first dose of vaccination in 70% of the country's population by the end of September 2021. Currently, a total of 20,169,592 vaccine doses have been administered until August 02, 2021, representing 38.9% of the total population, and 7,289,659 individuals(about 14.1% of the country’s population) have been fully vaccinated so far. In total, 0.49%(105,937 cases) of individuals who were vaccinated reported adverse effects. Among them, 94.9% were general adverse reactions, and 5.1% were severe adverse effects, including death and suspected anaphylaxis(severe allergic reactions). Recently, Delta variant is significantly expanding since June, and it is currently the predominant strain of the virus in the Republic of Korea. 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