Articles 60
  • Analyzing the Effects of AI Education Program based on AI Tools
    By. Aeri Lee
    Abstract Purpose: In recent years, AI technology has emerged as a core technology for the fourth industrial revolution. Along with the existing SW education, it is time to prepare for AI education, since the interest in AI education is also growing. The fact that learning about the theory and principles of AI is important is also stressed in the college education. However, non-major students tend to perceive AI technology to be difficult, and hence, a more efficient AI education is required. The purpose of this research is to guide the learners' direction for AI education, helping them to break away from their fears of AI through the AI education appropriate for the learners’ level. Method: In this study, to analyze the effect of the developed educational program on the learners’ AI literacy, the dependent variables changed before and after the application of the program were analyzed, and the single group’s ex ante and ex post testings were applied for the designing method for inferring the causal relationship. Results: The AI literacy of undergraduate students was analyzed for the educational program via the ex ante and ex posts testings of a single group by operating this program. As a result of the analysis, significant results were obtained where all three areas of the AI literacy were improved through the educational program Conclusion: This study is meaningful in that the AI educational program was proposed for the liberal arts class at college for the non-majors, and that the AI educational program which is generally applicable for the liberal arts class was developed and directly applied to validate its effectiveness. Discussions are expected to continue to develop the various details of the AI basic education to ensure that the non-majors can enter the AI education without fearing the AI based on the results of this study. [Keywords] Artificial Intelligence, AI Education, Education Model, AI Literacy, Artificial Intelligence Ethics References [1] Park H. Trend Analysis of Korea Papers in the Fields of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning. Korea Information Electronic Communication Technology, 13(4), 283-292 (2020). [2] Han J. Changes in Attitudes and Efficacy of AI Learners according to the Level of Programming Skill and Project Interest in AI Project. Journal of the Korean Association of Information Education, 24(4), 391-400 (2020). [3] Kim Y & Park G. Rubrics and Schoolwide Approach to the Character Education and Some Implica-tions to AI-based Character Education. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 19-26 (2020). [Article] [4] Oh K & Kim H. An Analysis of the Influence Big data Analysis-based AI Education on Affective Atti-tude towards Artificial Intelligence. Journal of the Korean Association of Information Education, 24(5), 463-471 (2020). [6] Jun S. Development of Artificial Intelligence Education Program based on Experiential Learning for Liberal Art Education. The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education, 24(2), 63-73 (2021). [7] Yi Y & Park Y. Establishing a Definition of AI Literacy and Designing a Liberal Arts Education Program. The Journal of Language & Literature, 85, 451-474 (2021). [9] Kim S & Kim S & Lee M & Kim H. Review on Artificial Intelligence Education for K-12 Students and Teachers. The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education, 23(4), 1-11 (2020). [10] Wong G & Ma X & Dillenbourg P & Huan J. Broadening Artificial Intelligence Education in K-12: Where to Start?. ACM Inroads, 11(1), 20-29 (2020). [11] Lee S. Analyzing the Effects of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Education Program based on Design Thinking Process. The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education, 23(4), 49-59 (2020). [12] Kim K & Park Y. A Development and Application of the Teaching and Learning Model of Artificial Intelligence Education for Elementary Students. Journal of the Korean Association of Information Education, 21(1), 137-147 (2017). [13] Lee Y. An Analysis of the Influence of Block-type Programming Language-based Artificial Intelli-gence Education on the Learner's Attitude in Artificial Intelligence. Journal of the Korean Association of Information Education, 23(2), 189-196 (2019). [14] Woo H & Lee H & Kim J & Lee W. Analysis of Artificial Intelligence Curriculum of SW Universities. The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education, 23(2), 13-20 (2020). [15] Choi J. Instructor Competency for Innovative Teaching Methods in the Untact Era. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 50-56 (2020). [Article] [17] Lee C. Direction of Software Education in Practical Arts for Cultivating Competencies in the AI Era. The Journal of Korean Practical Arts Education, 26(2), 41-64 (2020). [18] Yi Li & Park G. AI Ethics and Privacy Right. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 27-33 (2020). [Article] [19] Kim T & Park G. Future Oriented Smart Society and Ethical Issues. Robotics & AI Ethics, 6(1), 35-44 (2021). [Article] [20] Kim T & Park G & Seo E. IR4.0 and Ethical Tasks of AI. Robotics & AI Ethics, 4(2), 6-13 (2019). [Article] [8] Vazhayil A & Shetty R & Bhavani R & Akshay N. Focusing on Teacher Education to Introduce AI in Schools: Perspectives and Illustrative Findings. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Tech-nology for Education (2019). [16] Long D & Magerko B. What is AI Literacy? Compentencies and Design Considerations. 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2020). [5] (2019). [21] (2021). [22] (2021). [23] (2021). ? Source:
  • A Study on PUBLIC Lifelong Education Model for Second Life Planning and Support for Middle Aged Adults
    By. Heungkweun Yang, Miran Nam
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a Public lifelong education model for the second life plan of middle-aged and elderly people in order to cope with the rapid progress of today's aging society. Public support is needed so that middle-aged adults can design their second life and live successfully according to their own plans. In this study, the purpose is to propose a lifelong education model for the second life design and support for middle-aged adults. Method: The research method of this study used various methods such as literature research, Delphi research, and expert advisory meeting. First, literature research and previous studies related to life redesign and second life of middle-aged adults were analyzed. And, using the components of the middle-aged adult lifelong education model of the expert group extracted from the Delphi survey results. Finally, a lifelong education model was developed to support the second life plan for middle-aged and elderly people by collecting and reflecting the opinions of the expert group. Results: As a result of the study, the second life support lifelong education model for middle-aged and elderly people focuses on middle-aged learners, and analyzes the second life plan of middle-aged and elderly through counseling on life course and learning according to the learner's personal career and orientation. It is necessary to develop lifelong education programs that can support this and guide them to participate in such lifelong education. Conclusion: Supporting the second life plan for middle-aged and elderly people is not something that any individual or institution can do. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the lifelong education model that supports the second life plan of the middle-aged and elderly with a strategy that connects and utilizes existing systems and functions to the maximum extent. [Keywords] Lifelong-Education, Lifelong-Learning, Aging-Society, Second-Life-Design, Lifelong-Education-Model References [1] Choi MJ. An Exploration on Middle Aged Women’s Social Capital and Economic Capital: A Compar-ison of Four Different Age Groups. Health and Social Welfare Review, 32(2), 124-163 (2015). [2] Doo SH & Chang JY & R JI. The Effects of Work Centrality on Active Aging among the Older Adults: Mediating Role of Generativity. Korean Journal and Organizational Psychology, 27(3), 565-584 (2014). [3] Kim JH. Productive Activities of Older People and Their Influence on Life Satisfaction. Development and Society, 36(1), 45-69 (2007). [4] Byun JS & Kwon CH. The Analysis of Decision Factors for Middle-aged Women's Social Later-life Preparation: Focusing on the Regulation Effect of 386・X Generations. Korean Policy Sciences Re-view, 20(4), 173-199 (2016). [5] Shin SM & Kim DB. The Effects of Preparation for Old Age of the Past on Activity of the Elderly: The Mediating Effect of Psycho-social Resources. Korea Journal of Social Welfare Studies, 44(3), 57-83 (2013). [7] Chung JA & Kim YJ. Self-parenting of Middle and Old Aged Men in Korean. Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, and Sociology, 7(10), 577-587 (2017). [8] Park CJ. Financial Preparation Trend for Aging of the Middle-aged over Time and Their Determinants in Korea. Korean Journal of Gerontological Social Welfare, 73(4), 217-248 (2018). [9] Ryu SI. Retirement Management of Firefighters in Korea. International Journal of Human & Dister, 2(2), 19-22 (2017). [Article] [10] Lee MH & Kang KS. A Study on Causes of Elderly Crimes on Korea and Countermeasures. Interna-tional Journal of Criminal Study, 2(1), 11-15 (2017). [Article] [11] Chang IS. Security Policy of Police according to Increase of Elder Crimes. International Journal of Police & Policing, 2(2), 1-6 (2017). [Article] [12] Yang JS & Kim HN & Choi BH. The Purchase Behavior of HMR for Safety Food Culture for the El-derly People. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(2), 1-8 (2020). [Article] [13] Lee ES. The Effects of Preparation for Aging Health Trajectory of People over 50 Years Old with Disabilities. Korean Journal of Local Government & Administration Studies, 34(4), 295-312 (2020). [14] LEE JB & Liang D. Suggestions for Using AI in Preparation for a Super-aging Society. Robotics & Ai Ethics, 5(2), 57-64 (2020). [Article] [15] Choi WH. A Study on the Factors Affecting Job Separation by Middle and Old Aged Self-employed Using KLoSA Panel. The Journal of Vocational Education Research, 37(1), 119-138 (2018). [16] Han TY & Shin SK & Rie JI. The Mediation Effects of Post-retirement Preparation on Active Ageing and Productive Aging: Based on Theory of Planned Behavior. Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 22(2), 137-163 (2016). [17] Cho HJ & Gwak MJ. Social Interaction and Financial Stability of Middle and Old Aged Households. Consumer Policy and Education Review, 16(2), 27-55 (2020). [18] An KS & Hwang JY. Reorganization of the Baby-boom Generation and the University Lifelong Ed-ucation System. Journal of Digital Convergence, 17(11), 509-515 (2019). [19] Yang HK & Nam MR. The Study on the Life Patterns and Learning Patterns of an Middle and Old Age Korean. Global Creative Leader: Education & Learning, 9(5), 223-244 (2019). [20] Ko JK. Review of Connection between the Employment Policy and Pension Policy. Labor Law, 18, 259-289 (2004). [21] Kim MJ. A Study of the Factors Affecting Successful Aging and Their Roles in Lifelong Learning: Baby Boomers in Korea. Journal of Lifelong Learning Society, 9(2), 23-50 (2013). [6] Kwon DS & Jo AM. Adult Learning and Counseling to Realize a Lifelong Learning Society. Kyoyook-book (2016). ? Source:
  • Chinese Government’s Ethnic Minorities Policy and TERRORISM: Focusing on Uyghur's Separation-Independence Movement
    By. Sungtaek Cho
    Abstract Purpose: The reality is that ethnic conflicts exist in a multi-ethnic society. After the Cold War, the issue of ethnic identity and discrimination, which had been suppressed under the socialist system, was rapidly highlighted, and national division began. However, from the perspective of a dominant nation seeking international status as a powerful nation, the separation of ethnic minorities is considered a crisis of national dissolution, so it tries to thoroughly prevent the separation of minorities. In this process, terrorism occurs and government control and pressure become intense. This phenomenon is considered in this paper. Method: Under the socialist system, the Soviet Union and China have controlled multi-ethnic societies with ideology. However, after the Cold War, an independent state began to be established as a wave of separatist nationalism spread in Eastern Europe, including Russia. China has implemented a strengthened "one China policy" to nip this phenomenon in the bud at home. In particular, it sought to undermine separatist nationalism against the Uyghurs and Tibetans. We examine China's strategy for ethnic minorities and Uyghur's resistance from a historical perspective. Results: Xinjiang is a geopolitical important area. The Chinese government wants to defend against potential Western threats by controlling the region. Some extremist groups of ethnic minorities are also implementing multidimensional policies to fundamentally block armed struggles and attempts to carry out terrorism for secession. The politics of suppression of minorities will continue for the time being because it is not easy to dismantle the cultural and religious identity of minorities. Conclusion: It is a matter that cannot be coerced into assimilating minorities by a dominant ethnic group. If there is no prerequisite for recognizing ethnic differences and policies for national reconciliation, a coercive system will only produce conflict. To ensure that terrorism is not a means of expressing resistance to discrimination, imperial political behavior must be abandoned. [Keywords] Ethnic Minorities, One Chinese Policy, Shanghai Pact, Re-Education Camp, Separation Independence References [1] Hobsbaum E. Identity Politics and the Left. New Left Review, 217, 38-47 (1996). [2] Park DK & Jo SG. Cases and Countermeasure of Indiscriminate Terrorism. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 5(1), 25-31 (2020). [Article] [3] Park WS. A Study on the Improvement of Terrorism Response in Subway Crisis and Public Trans-portation. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 5(1), 48-59 (2020). [Article] [4] Chung JW. Central Asia, Chinese Xinjiang, and the Uighur Problem. Slav Newspaper, 30(2), 317-362 (2015). [5] Kim CH. The Xinjiang Uyghurs Resistance Movement as a National Liberation Movement. Marxism, 14(3), 144-168 (2017). [6] Woo DC. The Historical Background and Its Reality of the Uyghur Separation Movement. History Opening Tomorrow, 39, 175-192 (2010). [7] Lee DR. Separatism in Xinjiang. The Korean Journal of International Studies, 43(3), 317-338, (2003). [8] Yun MW. The Problem of Uyghur Nationalism, Uyghur Terrorism, and the State Terrorism of the Chinse State. Korean Security Journal, 45, 107-127 (2015). [9] Lee KH. A Study on Chinese Minority Policy in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Journal of Northeast Asian Studies, 13(4), 207-231 (2008). [10] Kim SC. The Study on Xinjiang Muslim Community in 20th Century. Korean Journal of Middle East Studies, 37(1), 161-191 (2016). [11] Lee KM & Yang SD. Review on the Function of Counterterrorism Intelligence Community in US. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 4(1), 1-8 (2019). [Article] [12] Cho JS. A Study on Factors Influencing the Terrorist Damage -Focusing on the Mediating Effect of Ripple Effect-. International Journal of terrorism & National Security, 3(1), 6-10 (2018).  [Article] [13] Lee DR. Ethnic Conflicts in Xinjiang, China. Critical Review of History, 85, 81-103 (2008). [14] Clarke M. China's Internal Security Dilemma and the Great Western Development. Asian Studies Review, 31(3), 323-342 (2007). [15] Joanne SF. Securitization, Insecurity and Conflict in Contemporary Xinjiang. Central Asian Survey, 38(1), 1-26 (2019). [16] Kong BJ. A Study on the Minority Nationalism and Sinocentrism in China -With Focus on Tibetan Independence and Uighur Independence. The Journal of International Relations, 12(1), 137-160 (2009). [17] Joshua T. Repression, Opportunity, and Innovation: The Evolution of Terrorism in Xinjiang, China. Terrorism and Political Violence, 30(4), 569-588 (2018). [18] Kim JG. A Study on the East Turkistan Separatist Independence Movement and China’s Response. Journal of Northeast Studies, 42, 43-67 (2007). [19] Yu BH. Theoretical Approach to Radicalization and Violent Extremism That Leads to Terrorism. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 2(2), 12-18 (2017). [Article] [20] Lee DS & Ahn YK. Review for Enactment of Anti-terrorism Law in China. Convergence Security Journal, 14(6), 51-61 (2014). [21] Lee DK. A Study on Anti-terrorism Law and Criminal Law Terrorist Crime in China. Journal of Northeast Asian Law Studies, 10(3), 97-129 (2017). [22] Shin SC. A Study on Terrorist Organizations in the Xinjiang-uighur Autonomous Region of China. Journal of China Studies, 15, 149-184 (2013). [23] Piao ZG & Min SX. Status of China’s Counter-terrorism Legislation, Issues and Future Challenges. Chinese Law Review, 28, 57-84 (2016). [24] Kim YK. Reinforcement of Hard-line Policy against Xinjiang Uighur Society during Xi Jinping’s Period. Journal of Chinese Studies, 78, 159-178 (2019). ? Source:
  • The Effect of ARMY Professionals` Perceptions of the System on Organizational Commitment: The Mediation Effects of ..
    By. Yongkwan Kang, Yooshin Im
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the mediation effect of professional identity in the process of the effect of Army professionals` perceptions of the system on organizational commitment, and to draw policy implications for the training and utilization of effective professionals. Methods: The survey was conducted on Army professionals and the hypothesis was verified using structural equations(AMOS18.0). Results: First, system trust did not have a significant effect on professional identity. Second, system internalization had a positive(+) effect on professional identity. Third, the indirect effect of professional identity was not significant in the relationship between system trust and organizational commitment. Fourth, the indirect effect of professional identity was significant in the relationship between system internalization and organizational commitment. Conclusion: First, it is necessary to consider the organizational level of professional personnel management system that allows professional personnel officers to have a positive perception and agree with its purpose. Second, in the process of system change, the situation and opinions of the army specialist officers who are subject to the system change should be reflected as much as possible, and the detailed consideration of the organizational level that makes them well accept the purpose and purpose of system change is necessary. Third, when the Army professional personnel officers are provided with conditions to work with a high professional identity and implement related policies, their organizational commitment can be increased. [Keywords] Professional Identity, System Internalization, System Trust, Organizational Commitment, Army Professionals References [1] Oh HS & Sung EM. Trend Analysis of Expert Society through Changing Profession. The Journal of Vocational Education Research, 29(2), 205-223 (2010). [4] Kang Y & Lee M & Im Y. The Influence of Expert Orientation and Job Challenge on Organizational Commitment of Army Professional Manpower: The Mediating Role of Professional Identity. Journal of National Defense Studies, 58(2), 83-112 (2015). [5] Khilji SE & Wang X. Intended and Implemented HRM: The Missing Linchpin in Strategic Human Resource Management Research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(7), 1171-1189 (2006). [6] Kostova T. Transnational Transfer of Strategic Organizational Practices: A Contextual Perspective. Academy of Management Review, 24(2), 308-324 (1999). [7] Park SJ & Im YS. A Case Study on the Core Competencies of Military Leadership for Junior Officers. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(1), 1-12 (2020). [Article] [8] Park SJ & Im YS. A Study on the Development of Kma Leadership Evaluation System(KMALES). International Journal of Military Affairs, 6(1), 36-42 (2021). [Article] [9] Rabinowitz S & Hall DT. Organizational Research on Job Involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 84(2), 265-288 (1977). [10] Lodahl T M & Keiner M. The Definition and Measurement of Job Involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49(1), 24-33 (1965). [11] Kim JH & Kim KH. The Study of the Relationship between Self-efficacy and Organizational Effec-tiveness: Focus on the Mediate Effects of Professional Identity. Journal of Community Welfare, 32, 107-127 (2010). [12] Jung BS. Factors Affecting Korea Army Officers’ Achievement in Professional Development Edu-cation. International Journal of Military Affairs, 2(2), 1-7 (2017). [Article] [13] Lee DG & Park SJ & Im YS. A Study on the Facilitation Factors of Non-commissioned Officer’s Field Leadership: Focused on Delphi and AHP Method. International Journal of Military Affairs, 5(2), 43-53 (2020). [Article] [14] Lim YJ & Park GY & Bang WS. Stress Management of Korean Military Leaders. International Journal of Military Affairs, 3(2), 1-7 (2018). [Article] [17] Kim WB & Rhee KY. Trust as Social Capital and Organizational Commitment. The Korean Socio-logical Association, 36(3), 1-23 (2002). [19] Hall DT. A Theoretical Model of Career Subidentity Development in Organizational Settings. Or-ganizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6(1), 50-76 (1971). [20] Snizek WE. Hall's Professionalism Scale: An Empirical Reassessment. American Sociological Review, 37(1), 109-114 (1972). [22] Allen NJ & Meyer JP. Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: An Examination of Construct Validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49(3), 252-276 (1996). [2] Choi WG. A Study on the Improvement Direction of the Specialized-degree Program in the Com-missioned Education: Focusing on the ROK Army. Yonsei University, Master’s Thesis (2006). [15] Kang HH. A Study on the Influence Factors of Trust in the Institution: Focusing on the National Pension System. Ewha Womans University, Doctoral Thesis (2009). [18] Kim JH. An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Human Resource Management System and Enterprise Performance: Focusing on the Mediating Effects of Internalization, Employee En-gagement, and Cynical Atmosphere. Hanyang University, Doctoral Thesis (2004). [21] Park JW. A Study on the Professional Identity of Social of Social Worker. Seoul National University, Doctoral Thesis (1994). [23] Choi SY. A Study on the Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Social Workers: Focusing on the Relationships among the Organizational Justice, Trust in Supervisor, Organizational Cynicism, and Affective Commitment. Ewha Womans University, Doctoral Thesis (2005). [3] Army Headquarters. Directions for Implementing the Personnel Management System for Profes-sionals. Army Headquarters (2010). [16] Kramer RM & Tyler TR. Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research. Sage (1995). [24] Stevens JP. Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum (2002). ? Source:
  • An Analysis of DRUG Manufacturing in North Korea and Smuggling in South Korea
    By. Namseol Baek
    Abstract Purpose: North Korea's drug production and trafficking have the longest history of illegal activities by the North Korean authorities as a means of earning foreign currency. In the 1990s, scientists smuggled large quantities of drugs from North Korea's Suncheon and Pyeongseong pharmaceutical plants to China. Drug manufacturing and trafficking in North Korea is a well-known public fact. Drugs from North Korea are being smuggled into South Korea through China through various methods. The purpose of the study is to block the entry of North Korean drugs into South Korea. Method: Define the concept of drugs and methamphetamine, look at the background of North Korea's trafficking, the status of smuggling to the world, the production and distribution of drugs in North Korea are handled at the national level, and analyze how they are smuggled into South Korea. Results: Drugs have been manufactured in the mountains of North Korea, which are hard to find outside, and are flowing into South Korea through China. Smuggling methods are highly intelligent, mainly using diplomatic bags, hidden in other goods of merchants, etc. Drugs in circulation are in large quantities and are understood to be in circulation at various stages. Conclusion: The reason why North Korea produces, manufactures and trafficks drugs is to cover insufficient foreign currency and use it as a cost of maintaining the regime. It is necessary to strengthen cooperation between South Korea and neighboring countries to prevent smuggling of North Korean drugs into South Korea, expand the international drug crime investigation organization, and strengthen investigation capabilities. [Keywords] North Korea, Drugs, Methamphetamine, Drug Manufacturing, Drug Trafficking References [1] Yang OK & Yun YS & Lee GH & Kim SN. North Korea’s Illegal Drug Use and Abuse: Current Situation and Solutions. Journal of East Asian Studies, 37(1), 233-270 (2018). [2] Mohammed A & Raymond DP & Back SC & Jo SG. The Role of Technology in Facilitating, Connecting, and Ending Cybercrime, Drug Trafficking, and Money Laundering. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 4(2), 23-33 (2019). [Article] [3] Beak NS. Consideration of North Korea's National Illegal Activities: Focusing on Drug Trafficking in North Korea. Korean Terrorism Studies Review, 14(3), 92-111 (2021). [4] Park HJ. The Study on the Narcotic Problems. Research on Creativity Development, 1(5), 235-262 (2001). [5] Mun YH & Kim JH. Survival after Cardiac Arrest due to Acute Methamphetamine Poisoning. Journal of the Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology, 16(2), 176-180 (2018). [6] Jang CM. Grounded Theory Analysis to the Structure of Relation of Prisoned Drug Abusers. Korea Journal of Counseling, 6(4), 1129-1150 (2005). [7] Oyefeso A. Psychological, Social and Behavioral Correlates of Substance use an Misuse. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 8, 184-188 (1995). [8] Lee SS & Kang EY. An Empirical Study on Drug Abuse and Attitudes toward Drug Policy. Correction Review, 27, 97-115 (2005). [9] Kim NH. Population Characteristics Influencing Treatment Service Use among Individuals with Drug Dependency. Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies, 39, 395-423 (2008). [10] Park SK. Psychological Characteristics of Drug Dependents. Korea Journal of Counseling, 5(4), 899-910 (2004). [11] Song BG. The Proliferation and Prospect of International Crime of North Korea. The Korean As-sociation of Police Science Review, 17(6), 145-182 (2015). [12] Jo SG. The United Nation's Response Strategy for North Korea's Denuclearization. International Journal of Military Affairs, 3(2), 20-28 (2018). [Article] [13] Lee SS. Human Rights Disaster: China's Human Rights Policy toward North Korean Refugees. In-ternational Journal of Human & Disaster, 6(1), 8-15 (2021). [Article] [14] Park JR. North Korean Society marred by Drugs, Smuggling and Violent Crime. North Korea, 501, 40-46 (2013). [15] Jung YS. The New Trends of Transnational Crimes & It’s Countermeasures. Korean Criminal Psy-chology Review, 7(1), 155-178 (2011). [16] Park SH. A Political Soldier is a Precious Metal, a Drug Dealer. North Korea, 542, 90-97 (2017). [17] Lee SY. How Did North Korea become a Drug Paradise?. North Korea, 524, 75-81 (2015). [18] Han YJ. North Korean Drug Addicts are Suffering from Flooding. North Korea, 420, 132-140 (2006). [19] Lee MH. Kingdom of Methamphetamine, Workers' Party of Korea. North Korea, 515, 122-126 (2014). [20] Han YJ. North Korea's Corruption have Forced North Koreans into the Swamp of Drug Addicts. North Korea, 427, 134-143 (2007). [21] Lee GH. North Koreans Addicted to Drugs. North Korea, 544, 66-73 (2017). [22] Lee JS. Drug Crime Trends in North Korean Society. Journal of Drug Crime Studies, 1, 30-39 (1999). [23] Han YJ. Chinese Police Investigate Drug Traps against North Koreans to Build Results. North Korea, 488, 149-153 (2012). [24] Park JT. A Study on the Use of Military Forces in the North Korean Regime. International Journal of Military Affairs, 4(2), 18-24 (2019). [Article] [25] Park YG. Watch out for North Korean Drugs and Counterfeit Bills. North Korea, 328, 72-79 (1999). ? Source:
  • Paradox of COVID-19 Pandemic, Strengthening Neo-Liberalist's Way of GLOBAL GOVERNANCE Building to Overcome Vaccine ..
    By. Sangsoo Lee
    Abstract Purpose: This paper intends to find alternatives to strengthen global governance in vaccine distribution amid the rise of vaccine nationalism in the international community. To this end, Chapter 2 briefly outlines the risks of vaccine nationalism and the concept of global governance. Chapter 3 examines the status of vaccine development in major countries and Chapter 4 suggests ways to establish global vaccine governance. Chapter 5 summarizes the previous discussions and suggests a policy alternative for securing vaccines for the ROK. Method: The spread of COVID-19 has led to the fall of neoliberalism, but to end the COVID-19 pandemic, only infectious disease control through strengthening transformative neo-liberal way of strengthening international governance can overcome the vaccine nationalism. Global Governance refers to the performance of various interested parties through horizontal cooperation to achieve a common purpose, especially the public purpose. Results: The policy alternatives to overcome vaccination nationalism and end the global COVID-19 pandemic are as follows. First, it is possible to effectively respond to various infectious diseases in the future by strengthening the disease management function of the UN and rearranging of WHO for the fair distribution of vaccines. Second, AI technology-based platforms can be used to optimize the use of early warning and mobilize necessary resources for preventive measures. Third, patent rights for vaccine manufacturing technologies should be revoked and vaccines should be produced and administered simultaneously regardless of country or patent to prevent the spread. Fourth, measures to limit national sovereignty at the global governance level should be clearly defined. Fifth, cooperation with WHO and transnational pharmaceutical companies, and NGO, IGO(Intergovernmental Organization) are key to combating vaccination nationalism's politics. Conclusion: The implications of major countries' vaccine development and vaccine diplomacy for the ROK are as follows. First, the ROK also needs to continue to develop vaccines and treatments, foster human resources in related fields, and establish active international cooperation. Second, it is necessary to strengthen the international system to develop vaccines and treatments. Third, it is necessary to actively secure vaccines through the production of a licensing method that introduces technology, not just consignment production in Korea, or equity investment in overseas vaccine companies, which requires the government's full support for the industry. [Keywords] COVID-19, Neo-Liberalism, Pandemic, Vaccine Nationalism, Global Governance References [1] Lee S. Spread of the Covid-19 and the Fall of Neoliberalism: State's Increased Police Role. Regula-tions, 6(1), 1-9 (2021). [Article] [2] Nhamo G & David C & Hlengiwe PK & Nthivhiseni M. Covid-19 Vaccines and Treatment Nationalism: Challenges for Low-income Countries and the Attainment of the SDGs. Global Public Health, 16(3), 319-339 (2021). [3] Guimon J & Rajeesh N. Ending the Covid-19 Pandemic Requires More International Collaboration. Research-Technology Management, 63(5), 38-41 (2021). [4] Forman L & Jillian CK. Global Health and Human Rights in the Time of Covid-19: Response, Re-strictions, and Legitimacy. Journal of Human Rights, 19(5), 551-552 (2021). [5] Tkachenko AV & Sergei M & Ahmed E & George NW & Zachary JW. Time-dependent Heterogeneity Leads to Transient Suppression of the Covid-19 Epidemic, not Herd Immunity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(17), 1-12 (2021). [7] Ruijter AD. How the EU Vaccine Troubles could have Partially been Prevented Ten Years Ago. The Lancet Regional Health-Europe, 3, 1-1 (2021). [8] Lee S. The Changes That Covid-19 has Brought about. The Korean Journal of Humanities and the Social Sciences, 44(2), 251-255 (2020). [11] Rinott E & Ihan Y & Lewis YE. Reduction in Covid-19 Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation Following Implementation of a National Covid-19 Vaccination Program-israel, December 2020-February 2021. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(9), 326-328 (2021). [13] Kim D. Government Roles in Policy Networks against Covid-19: Comparing Two Cases in S. Korea. Protection Convergence, 5(2), 14-26 (2020). [Article] [14] Ha J. A Study on the Post-corona Security Industry. Regulations, 6(1), 55-62 (2021). [Article] [15] Park G & Kim H & Yi L. Virtue for Post Covid-19 and AI Technology. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 8-18 (2020). [Article] [16] Cho H & Park S & Im Y. Human Security Task and Prospect on Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 5(2), 48-55 (2020). [Article] [18] Choi E. Ethical Debates Surrounding the Development of Vaccines During Covid-19 Pandemic. Bio, Ethics, and Policy, 4(2), 6-7 (2020). [19] Lyou B. The Role and Limitations of the World Health Organization(WHO): Focusing on Covid-19 Outbreak. Hongik Law Review, 21(4), 92-119 (2020). [21] Bollyky TJ & Bown CP. The Tragedy of Vaccine Nationalism: Only Cooperation Can End the Pan-demic. Foreign Affairs, 99(5), 96-108 (2020). [22] Fidler DP. Vaccine Nationalism's Politics. Science, 369(6505), 749-749 (2020). [9] Cox RW. Production, Power, and World Order: Social Forces in the Making of History. Columbia University (1987). [10] Pierre J & Peters BG. Governance, Politics and the State. St. Martin's (2000). [6] (2021). [12] (2021). [17] (2021). [20] Abas MZ. Practical Implications of Vaccine Nationalism: A Short-sighted and Risky Approach in Response to Covid-19. Research Paper (2020). ? Source:
  • Profiling of Team Performances based on the Official Data in SOCCER
    By. Hyongjun Choi
    Abstract Purpose: The performance analysis of sport has utilized to distinguish level of performances in past decade. Especially, the concept of identification on important factors relevant to winning and losing performances was always considered in the field of performance analysis in sports. This study was to compare different performances between groups separated by frequencies of participant to soccer World Cup 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018. This study was also intended to identify factor of distinguishing levels of performances instead of regional factor. Method: In this study, the official data from FIFA official website was collected by Microsoft Excel version 16.0 with Visual Basic Application scripts that totally 20 variables relevant to goals and features of performances were considered. After data collection has done, all data were separated by groups basing on frequencies of participant to soccer World Cup. In addition, descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA test with Turkey’s test as post hoc comparisons were utilized to compare different performances between groups. Results: As results of this study, there were significant differences found on variables relevant to goals, such as Goals, Shot attempt. Also, there were significant differences found between groups on Passes, Passes completed, Short passes, Foul sustained, % of Passes completed, % of Short passes completed and Ball possession. Those findings indicated different levels of performances between experiences on soccer World Cup that those variables also indicated different features of performances depending on the experiences. Conclusion: According to results of this study, the experiences on soccer World Cup are important factors to distinguish different levels of performances considering with the official data. The variables relevant to goals and different features of performances in soccer would be utilized to identify characteristics of team performances or nations regarding to the results of this study. Further researches are required that variables relating to the levels of performances distinguished in this study would be a factor of prediction models for identification of outcome of performances in soccer. [Keywords] Soccer, Performance Analysis of Sport, Levels of Performances, Soccer Analysis, Sport Analytics References [1] Becker AJ & Whitney J. An Investigation into the Coaching Approach of a Successful World Class Soccer Coach: Anson Dorrance. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 7(3), 431-447 (2012). [2] Hughes M & Bartlett R. The Use of Performance Indicators in Performance Analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 739-754 (2002). [4] Bai X Shin H & Lee S. The Impacts of the Winter Olympic Games on Sport Tourism: A Systematic Review. Kinesiology, 6(1), 39-47 (2021). [Article] [5] Kwack H & Shin H. A Narrative Study on the Preparation Period for the Performance Improvement of the Winner of Taekwondo Demonstration Competitions. Kinesiology, 5(1), 33-47 (2020). [Article] [6] Park J & Hong C & Cheon W. Application of Functionnal Trainning to Improve the Performance of Elite Judo Athletes. Kinesiology, 6(1), 20-29 (2021). [Article] [7] Kim T & Kim K. The Comparison of Muscle Power Related Main Techniques and Exercise Ability according to the Athletic Capacity of Male Middle School Handball Player. Kinesiology, 5(2), 70-78 (2020). [Article] [8] Park J. The Effect of Functional Training on the Physical Strength Factor of Elite Taekwondo Athletes. International Journal Sport, 4(1), 1-7 (2019). [Article] [9] Hughes M & Franks IM. Analysis of Passing Sequences, Shots and Goals in Soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(5), 509-514 (2005). [10] Choi H. The Visualization of the Official Data for Soccer World Cup. The Korean Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sport Science, 18(1), 83-92 (2016). [11] Choi H & Kim JH. The Prediction of Game Results Using ANN(Artificial Neural Networks) within the Wimbledon Tennis Championship 2005. The Korean Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sport Science, 45(3), 459-467 (2006). [12] Choi H. The Development on Measurement Methods for PiP(Perturbation in Performances) in Football. The Korean Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sport Science, 16(3), 65-76 (2014). [13] Choi H. The Current Status of Sports Big Data Analysis Researches in Korea. The Korean Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sport Science, 22(2), 63-69 (2020). [14] Cottrell M & Letremy P. How to Use the Kohonen Algorithm to Simultaneously Analyze Individuals and Modalities in a Survey. Neurocomputing, 63, 193-207 (2005). [16] Kohonen T & Somervuo P. How to Make Large Self-organizing Maps for Nonvectorial Data. Neural Networks, 15(8-9), 945-952 (2002). [18] Csataljay G & O’Donoghue P & Hughes M & Dancs H. Performance Indicators that Distinguish Winning and Losing Teams in Basketball. eIJPAS, 9(1), 60-66 (2009). [19] Choi HJ & Hughes M & O’Donoghue P. Regional Comparisons of Teams’ Performances in the World Cup 2002 and 2006. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(10), 206-206 (2007). [20] Choi H. The Investigation of Team Performance Analysis Based on the 2002, 2006 Football Worldcup Data. The Korean Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sport Science, 11(2), 41-51 (2009). [3] Katz L & Liebermann DG & Morey Sorrentino R. A Preliminary Analysis of Coaches’ Attitudes to the Use of Technology and Science in Sport. UWIC (2001). [15] Kohonen T. Self-organization and Associative Memory. Springerverlag, Heidelberg (1989). [17] Hughes M & Evans S & Wells J. Establishing Normative Profiles in Performance Analysis. Routledge (2001). ? Source:
  • The Structural Relationship among Desperateness, Mental Strength and Perceived Performance of High School TAEKWONDO Players
    By. Sunghoon Kim, Hongbum Shin
    Abstract Purpose: Players' desperateness is a mental state of readiness for training and competition, which is understood to be a variable that influences players' performance as a factor that promotes motivation for why they should participate and win. On the other hand, mental strength is psychological strength that directly affects the performance of players, so the relationship between these two variables is clearly classified into a sequential relationship, and finally, the perceived performance of players will be affected by the relationship between these two variables. In addition, it is possible to predict enough that mental strength will play a mediating role in the relationship between desperateness and perceived performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand the influence of high school Taekwondo players' perceived desperateness through structural relationships with their desperateness, mental strength, and perceived performance, and to help them improve their performance. Method: A total of 281 high school Taekwondo players were selected as participants by convenience sampling technique, and they were asked with desperateness questionnaire, mental strength questionnaire, and perceived performance questionnaire. The data analysis of this study was executed by using PASW 23.0 and AMOS 23.0 for the frequency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and the research model was test through structure equation modeling analysis and the bootstrapping method was used to find out the mediating effect. Results: The desperateness had a positive relationship with mental strength. This is a result of predicting that the higher the level of desperateness, the higher the level of mental strength can be. Desperateness was also found to have a positive causal relationship with perceived performance meaning that the higher the level of desperation, the higher the level of performance perceived by athletes, and it is understood that the desperation of high school taekwondo players can help improve perceived performance. Mental strength had a positive causal relationship with perceived performance. It means the higher the level of mental strength, the higher the level of performance perceived by athletes, and it is understood that the mental strength of high school taekwondo players can help improve the perceived performance. Mental strength had a mediating effect in the relationship between desperateness and perceived performance. Conclusion: The desperateness of athletes is a leading variable that positively influences the improvement of athletes' performance. Desperate is a state of mind preparedness for how high school Taekwondo players participate in sports and games, and it is understood that this mindset is expressed as a strong will for the purpose and direction of action, and it is judged to have a positive impact on the win or lose of the game. Since this study found mental strength had a positive causal relationship with perceived performance mental strength needs to be regarded as a major concern of leaders and coaches as a major factor in determining the win or loss of a game, and should be making continuous efforts to improve the mental strength of athletes. [Keywords] Desperateness, Eagerness, Mental Strength, Perceived Performance, Taekwondo References [1] Park J. The Effect of Functional Training on the Physical Strength Factor of Elite Taekwondo Ath-letes. Kinesiology, 4(1), 1-7 (2019). [Article] [2] Ro G & Kim S. The Development on Mental Toughness Inventory for Taekwondo Players. The Korea Journal of Sports Science, 20(5), 499-509 (2011). [4] Kwon S & Moon M & Ahn H. Exploration of Concept and Structure of Athletes’ Julsil and Devel-opment of Athletes’ Julsil Scale. Korean Journal of Sport Psychology, 26(3), 109-244 (2015). [5] Lee J. The Structural Relationship among Julsil, Ego Resilience and Training Engagement of Bad-minton Athletes. The Korean Journal of Sport, 17(1), 555-566 (2017). [6] Kwon S & Jang D & Lee D & Lee S & Kim T. The Structural Relationship among Julsil, Flow and Per-ceived Performance of Athlete. Korean Journal of Sport Psychology, 31(4), 47-59 (2020). [7] Kim B. The Influence of Boxing Athlete’s Desperation on Exercise Flow and Game Performance. The Korea Journal of Sport, 16(3), 563-572 (2018). [8] Kim W. An Analysis of the Sport Mental Power Construct and Development of the Sport Mental Power Inventory in Korean Competitive Sports. Korean Journal of Sport Psychology, 13(3), 21-41 (2002). [11] Bull SJ & Shambrook CJ & James W & Brooks JE. Towards an Understanding of Mental Toughness in Elite English Cricketers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 17, 209-227 (2005). [12] Song Y & Kim T & Choi H & Hwang S. The Structural Validation of Korean Mental Toughness In-ventory(K-MTI) Using Bayesian Estimation. The Korean Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sports Science, 20(4), 15-31 (2018). [13] Kong S & Kim B. The Relationship between University Ssireum Players’ Sports Mental Power, Self-management and Performance. The Korea Journal of Sport, 15(1), 589-599 (2017). [14] Yang D & Kim K & Kang H. The Relationship among Positive Psychological Capital, Mental Toughness and Burnout on University Taekwondo Kyorugi Players. Journal of the World Society of Taekwondo Culture, 11(2), 187-202 (2020). [15] Kim S. The Effects of Taekwondo Players’ Perception of Success on their Mental Power. Korea Sport Research, 18(4), 853-864 (2007). [16] Kim E & Jung M & Lim S. The Mediating Effects of Achievement Goal Orientation on the Relation between Sport Confidence and Mental Power of University Taekwondo Players. The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts, 19(4), 11-28 (2017). [17] Seo B & Choi S & Kim S. The Effect of Athlete`s Perceived Competing Values Leadership of Taekwondo Coached on Sports Emotion, Mental Toughness, and Perceived Performance. The Ko-rea Journal of Sports Science, 23(5), 537-549 (2014). [18] Jang S. The Effects of Self-management and Mental Strength of Judo Players on Perceived Per-formance. Journal of Martial Arts, 13(4), 153-173 (2019). [20] Won Y & Sim Y & Kim J. The Effect of Retirement Anxiety on the Athletic Commitment and Per-ceived Performance of University Taekwondo Players. Taekwondo Journal of Kukkiwon, 9(2), 105-125 (2018). [21] Lim Y. Effects of Leader Trust on the Relationship between Team Cohesion and Perceived Per-formance in Taekwondo Demonstration Competitions Players. Taekwondo Journal of Kukkiwon, 9(3), 41-57 (2018). [22] Mamassis G & Goganis G. The Effects of a Mental Training Program on Juniors Pre-competitive Anxiety, Self-confidence, and Tennis Performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(2), 118-137 (2004). [23] Hong S. The Criteria for Selecting Appropriate Fit Indices in Structural Equation Modeling and their Rationales. Korean Journal of Sport Psychology, 19(1), 161-177 (2000). [24] Bagozzi R & Dholakia U. Intentional Social Action in Virtual Communities. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 16, 2-21 (2002). [27] Csikszentmihalyi M. Motivation and Creativity: Toward a Synthesis of Structural and Energetic Approaches to Cognition. New Ideas in Psychology, 6(2), 159-176 (1988). [28] Šimleša M & Guegan J & Blanchard E & Tarpin-Bernard F & Buisine S. The Flow Engine Framework: A Cognitive Model of Optimal Human Experience. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 232-253 (2018). [29] Lee S & Kim J & Park J. The Effect of Self-management of Juvenile Taekwondo Breaking Athletes on Sports Competitive Anxiety. Kinesiology, 6(1), 1-9 (2021). [Article] [30] Kim J & Park J & Lee S. The Influence of Sports Confidence of High School Taekwondo Breaking Athletes on Exercise Continuation. International Journal of Martial Arts, 6(1), 35-45 (2021). [Article] [31] Lee H & Kim S. Associations of Self-regulation, Agentic-engagement, Mental Toughness and Per-ceived Performance for Korean Juvenile Golfers. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 71, 405-420 (2018). [32] Shin H & Kim J. The Effects of University Taekwondo Demonstration Team’s Self-management on Exercise Commitment and Perceived Performance. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(2), 20-30 (2020). [Article] [33] Koo B. Verification of the Effectiveness of the Archer’s Psychological Skill Training That Applies a Mental Reinforcement Program. The Korean Journal of Sport, 10(2), 89-99 (2012). [34] Kim Y & Kim B & Koh J. Development of Psychological Skills Training Programs for Athletes to Develop Mental Strength. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 12(2), 1-31 (2001). [35] Choi H & Jo S. The Effects of Taekwondo Training on the Leadership Skills and Community Spirit of Middle School Girls. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(1), 39-47 (2020). [Article] [36] Swann C & Keegan RJ & Piggott D & Crust L. A Systematic Review of the Experience, Occurrence, and Controllability of Flow States in Elite Sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 807-819 (2012). [37] Baron RM & Kenny DA. The Moderator-mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Re-search: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 173 (1986). [38] Lee S & Jeoung J. Comparative Analysis of Taekwondo Poomsae Professional Gym and High School Team Performance Factors. International Journal of Martial Arts, 6(1), 46-54 (2021). [Article] [39] Kim H & Kang S & Kwon S. Verification of the Structural Relationship among Athlete Julsil, Self-regulation, and Flow in Adolescent Athletes. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 31(1), 13-24 (2019). [19] Lee D. Relationship between College Athletes’ Grit, Julsil and Perceived Performance. Seoul Na-tional University, Master’s Thesis (2020). [26] Kim H. Relationship between Athlete’s Julsil, Self-regulation, and Flow of Adolescent Athletes. Seoul National University, Master’s Thesis (2016). [9] Porter K & Foster J. The Mental Athlete. Wm. C. Brown (1986). [10] Bull SJ & Albinson JG & Shambrook CJ. The Mental Game Plan: Getting Psyched for Sport. Sports Dynamic (1996). [25] Kim G. AMOS 18.0 Structural Equational Modeling Analysis. Hannarae Academy (2010). [3] (2021). ? Source:
  • Consideration of GREENAREARATIO When Establishing an Urban Development Plan
    By. Changjun Kim, Hyangju Lee, Wonhyeon Lim
    Abstract Purpose: Just as the natural environment is vital for people to live in, the park and green area, which are indicators for eco-friendly development, are essential when proceeding with urban development projects. Therefore, this study reviewed focusing on the park and green area ratio in the environmental impact assessment for urban development projects. Through this, we intended to provide a comprehensive guideline for environmental land use planning and design for urban development or residential land development projects and to guide plans and designs based on this. Method: The analysis was based on the environmental impact assessment, which was investigated for 145 urban development projects for 18 years from 2003 to 2020. We conducted a one-way ANOVA analysis to determine the difference between the green area rate by year, the green area rate by region, the population density by region, and the park area per person by region. Post-hoc analysis was performed by the Scheffe test. To conduct the above statistical analysis, we used the Spss Statistics 21 statistics program. Results: The number of consultations on environmental impact assessment for urban development projects by year was the highest in 2006 and 2008, with 14 cases(9.66%). The green area rate by year was as high as 25.09% in 2005, 24.88% in 2007, and 22.73% in 2009. The green area rate by region was the highest in the Gangwon area with 22.63%, followed by 20.47% in the metropolitan area, 19.59% in the Honam area, and 19.51% in the Chungcheong area. The population density by region was the highest with 2.10(person/m2) in the metropolitan area. Next the Gangwon area was 1.99(person/m2) and the Southeast area was 1.80(person/m2). The park area per person by region was the largest in the Honam area, with 10.93m2. Conclusion: The area of parks and green spaces is seen as the minimum standard stipulated by law. However, the high green area ratio and the difference in population density by region during active urban development projects are to create a pleasant residential environment. Therefore, in a place with high population density, it is necessary to establish a high standard for securing green space to create a comfortable living environment. Also, in the case of parks, the location is essential as well as the area. Since green areas on slopes excluding parks in the green area ratio are difficult to use, we insist that green areas on slopes should be reduced, and park areas should be set high to create a pleasant residential environment. [Keywords] Urban Development Plan, Urban Development Projects, Parks, Green Areas, Green Area Ratio References [1] Kim EJ & Yuh HK. A Study on the Change of the Land Use Component in Public Housing Complexes by the Influence of the Changes in Environmental Policy. Journal of Korea Planning Association, 44(5), 235-253 (2009). [3] Kim EJ & Yuh HK. A Study on the Factor of Environment Impact Assessment having Influ-ence on Park & Green Open Space Planning of Public Housing Complexes. Journal of Korea Planning Association, 45(3), 105-121 (2010). [4] Choi JG & Seo SC & Joo YJ. Research on Improving EIA Through Causality Analysis. Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment, 17(1), 11-24 (2008). [5] Son YH & Yoon MY. Types of Green Landscapes in a Suburban City Perceptions of Local Residents. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, 39(5), 101-110 (2011). [6] Jeong YM. A Study on the Systematization of the Legal Framework for Environmental Impact Assessment Systems. Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment, 13(3), 195-209 (2001). [7] Hong SP. A Study on the Implication of Sustainability and Environmental Assessment. Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment, 20(3), 269-279 (2011). [8] Lee DK & Sung HC & Youn SW. A Study on the Method for Establishment of Quantitative Target of the Urban Greenspace -In the Case of Suwon City. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, 25(4), 158-170 (1998). [9] Oh SR & Kang SH & Lee CW. A Study on the Environmental Assessment for Regional-based Green Area Conservation. Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater, 25(4), 535-546 (2011). [10] Kang SY. Environmental Impact Assessment Policy in Korea. Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment, 6(2), 29-33 (1997). [11] Song IS & Kim SJ & Kim CR. A Study on Creation and Activation of Green Areas in Underground Spaces of Seoul. Seoul Development Institute, 51, 1-142 (2010). [12] Paik JW & Chung KW. A Study on Green Design for Improving Green Ratio in Urban Environment. Journal of the Korean Society Design Culture, 17(1), 215-225 (2011). [13] Lee J & Kwon G & Cheon W & Lim W. A Study on the Revitalization of Forest Management by Improving the Implementation Rate of Forest Projects. International Journal of Human & Disaster, 5(2), 1-9 (2020). [Article] [14] Song BG & Park KH. An Analysis of Rational Green Area Ratio by Land Use Types for Mitigating Heat-island Effects. Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies, 18(2), 59-74 (2015). [15] Kim BW & Lee WA & Park SN. Situations and Problems of Park and Green Space Master Plan based on the Revised Urban Park Law in Korea. Journal of the Korea Society of Plant and Environmental Design, 4(3), 1-5 (2008). [16] Kim C & Lee H & Lim W. Improvement Plan Through Nonagreement Consultation Analysis of Small Scale Environmental Impact Assessment. Public Value, 6(1), 1-13 (2021).  [Article] [18] Kim SO & Lee SD. Study on the Ratio of Greenness in Residential Complex Development in the Process of Prior Environmental Review System. Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment, 16(5), 311-318 (2007). [19] Hong J & Lee H & Cheon W & Lim W. An Investigation on the Differences of Management in Landscape Construction Projects. Public Value, 5(2), 32-38 (2020). [Article] [20] Park CI. A Study on Expansion of Urban Park and Green Belt based on Residents’ Attitude of Park and Green Belt. Journal of the Korean Institute of Forest Recreation, 14(3), 29-37 (2010). [21] Kim JW. A Study about Expansion of Green Space in Gyongju. Nonin Group for Regional Development, 7, 93-118 (2006). [22] Jeon MJ & Park JS & Lim WH. An Investigation on Developing the Shelter and Safety Facilities of Forest Kindergartens. International Journal of Protection, Security & Investigation, 5(1), 42-53 (2020). [Article] [23] Kwon GS & Cheon WK & Lim WH. A Study on the Actual Condition and Improvement Plan of Hierarchical Safety Management in Natural Parks. International Journal of Crisis & Safety, 5(1), 21-34 (2020).  [Article] [2] Kim CJ. A Study on Application of Percentage of Park Green-space in Urban Development Projects: For Case-study of Environmental Assessment. Daegu Haany University, Master's Thesis (2013). [17] (2021). ? Source:
  • A Scientometrics Research on Physical Activity and Health RISKS of the Elderly
    By. Xuefeng Bai, Hongbum Shin
    Abstract Purpose: With the deepening of global aging, how to control and prevent the health crisis of the elderly has become the focus of global attention. To address this problem, a large number of studies have been conducted around the world, and physical activity has been shown to be closely linked to health risks in the elderly. In order to sort out the results of many researches, this paper made a scientometrics analysis of the relevant researches in the past 10 years. This can not only systematically understand the current research trend, but also serve as a reference for subsequent research. Method: This study adopted scientometrics and visual analysis methods, thus CiteSpace Visualization based on Java programming was employed as the main tool of the study. Literature searched from Web of Science database from 2010 to present and was used to show the topic evolution of research related to the research topic after analysis. Results: According to the statistics on the time and quantity of the literature on physical activity and health risks of the elderly, it was found that the literature had a stable increasing trend from 2010 to 2012, from 2013 to 2015, from 2016 to 2018, and from 2019 to 2020. Through the analysis of the co-occurring map of institutions on physical activity for elderly, it was found that colleges and universities were the core in the institutions in this field. Geriatrics & Gerontology, Public Environmental & Occupational Health, General & Internal Medicine, Medicine, Nutrition & Dietetics and Physical provided basic for the researches on physical activity and health risks of elderly. The research hotspots were showed as physical activity, risk, risk factor, Older adult, elderly, exercise, mortality, health, prevalence, association. This indicated that the researches on physical activity and health risk of the elderly at this stage mainly focused on the health and physique of the elderly. In the second stage, there were abundant experimental studies on the physical function of the elderly, the physiological dimension of different types of senile chronic diseases, and the risk factors of disease prevention. In the third stage, the researches on the elderly' personal health behavior and lifestyle, social support and health promotion began to be prominent. Conclusion: This paper took Web of Science as the data source and used CiteSpace, a scientific measurement tool, to draw the knowledge map of physical activity and health risks of the elderly scientifically and rigorously, and systematically analyzes the basic characteristics, research hotspots and topic evolution of this research field. However, there are still some limitations in the time period, database and search scope of the research results, which we hope can be solved in the follow-up research. [Keywords] Health Risk of the Elderly, Scientometrics Research, Physical Activity, Visual Analysis, Knowledge Map References [1] Huy C & Becker S & Gomolinsky U. Health, Medical Risk Factors, and Bicycle Use in Everyday Life in the Over-50 Population. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 16, 454-464 (2008). [2] Zhan B & Yuan CP & Yang TT. Evolutionary Characteristics and Implications of International Physical Activity for Elderly Research. Journal of Beijing Sport University, 44(2), 128-144 (2021). [3] Forrest K & Bunker CH & Kriska AM. Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Developing Population. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(9), 598-604 (2001). [4] Hu G & Jousilahti P & Borodulin K & Barengo N & Lakka T & Nissinen A & Toumilehto J. Occupa-tional, Commuting and Leisure-time Physical Activity in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease among Middle-aged Finnish Men and Women. Atherosclerosis, 194(2), 490-497 (2007). [5] Lee IL & Cho JK & Jin YY. Body Fat and Physical Activity Modulate the Association between Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis in Elderly Korean Women. Journal Sport Science and Medicine, 15(3), 477-482 (2016). [6] Yohannes W & Endeshaw MD. Organized Social Activity, Physical Exercise, and the Risk of Insomnia Symptoms among Community-dwelling Older Adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 31(6), 989-1001 (2019). [7] Aguinaga S & Ehlers DK & Salerno EA. Home-based Physical Activity Program Im-proves Depression and Anxiety in Older Adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 15(9), 692-696 (2018). [8] Liu YZ & Liu JM & Hong X. Effects of Physical Activity for Relative Risk of Falls and Fall-related Fractures in the Elderly. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 51(6), 229-230 (2019). [9] Ding ZY. Research on Foreign School Sports Risk Based on Literature Measurements. Sports Re-search and Education, 34(5), 49-55 (2019). [10] Yan JF & Sun H & Zhang J. Research on Sports Ecological Environment in China: Context Evolution Frontier, Hot Topics and Development Trends. Journal of Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, 55(2), 13-20 (2021). [11] Han XW & Wu W & Hao L. Progress of Foreign School Sports Research in 1982-2017: Based on the Visualization Analysis of Knowledge Map. Journal of Beijing Sport University, 41(6), 84-92 (2018). [12] Yang Y & Yao Q & Shi Y. A Review of International Tourism Risk: Statistical Analysis Based on Web of Science. World Regional Studies, 29(6), 1237-1247 (2020). [13] Ai AL. Analysis of Knowledge Map of Sports Risk Prevention for College Students Based on CiteSpace. Science & Technology Information, 27, 22-24 (2020). [14] Hernandez S & Coelho F & Gobbi S & Stella F. Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Functions, Balance and Risk of Falls in Elderly Patients with Alzheimer's Dementia. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 14(1), 68-74 (2010). [15] Voukelatosa A & Merom D & Rissei C. The Effect of Walking on Falls in Older People: The Easy Steps to Health Randomized Controlled Trial Study Protocol BMC Public Health. BMC Public Health, 11, 888-889 (2011). [16] Monteiro NT & Neri AL & Coelim MF. Insomnia Symptoms, Daytime Naps and Physical Leisure Activities in the Elderly: FIBRA Study Campinas. Revista Da Escola De Enfermagem Da USP, 48(2), 239-246 (2014). [17] Cheung YK & Moon & Yeseon P. Leisure-time Physical Activity Cardiovascular Mortality in an Elderly Population in Northern Manbattan: A Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 32, 168-174 (2017). [18] Lachman S & Boekholdt SM & Luben RN & Sharp SJ & Brage S & Khaw K & Peters R & Wareham NJ. Impact of Physical Activity on the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Middle-aged and Older Adults: EPIC Norfolk Prospective Population Study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 25(2), 200-208 (2018). [19] Yu HJ & Andiara S. Associations between Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Out-of-pocket Health Care Expenditure: Evidence form Chinese Older Adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 27(1), 108-115 (2019). [20]Gyasi RM. Social Support, Physical Activity and Psychological Distress among Community-dwelling Older Ghanaians. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 81, 142-148 (2019). [21] Lee JB & Liang D. Suggestions for Using AI in Preparation for a Super-aging Society. Robotics & AI Ethics, 5(2), 57-64 (2020). [Article] [22] Kim EY. Influence of Stress on Self-esteem and the Moderating Effects of Physical Activities in Korean Elderly People. International Journal of Sport, 1(1), 8-13 (2016). [Article] [23] Kim ES & Park JS. Effects of Qigong Training on Body Composition, Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly. International Journal of Martial Arts, 3(1), 20-27 (2018). [Article] [24] Choi Y & Lee JB & Liang D. Effect of Fun of Elderly Women Participating in Health Qigong on the Health Related Quality of Life. International Journal of Martial Arts, 5(2), 11-19 (2020). [Article] [25] Yeo I & Lee JB & Kim JY. Effect of Fun of Elderly Women Participating in Health Qigong on Resili-ence. Kinesiology, 6(1), 30-38 (2021). [Article] ? Source: