The Implementation Strategy of A4P(A4P+) and the Implications for Korean Military’s Participation in UN PKOs

By. Hyokyung Kang Views. 1365


Purpose: The United Nations recently announced A4P+, a priority for the implementation of A4P following A4P to emphasize the qualitative improvement of peacekeeping operations and the sharing of responsibilities among related actors. In this paper, I will consider the A4P+ priorities to be implemented for UN peacekeeping operations between 2021-2023 and draw implications for the Korean military deployment policy in peacekeeping.

Method: To this end, Literature analysis centered on official documents published by the United Nations related to A4P and A4P+, was conducted, and military-related data were referenced among various data on the United Nations web page.

Results: A4P and A4P+ presented areas and tasks to be implemented in peacekeeping operations by the UN, member states, regional organizations, and host governments related to the deployment of UN personnel. Upholding A4P and A4P+ are WPS(Women, Peace, and Security) and data-driven and advanced technologies. All stakeholders in Peacekeeping must do their commitments in eight areas of A4P and prepare for the materialization of A4P through A4P+ priorities based on the two. Member states providing military and police are responsible for providing their competent peacekeepers to field missions for their safety and security and mandate implementation. Peacekeeping operations emphasize high-tech and information collection systems for effectiveness and efficiency of peacekeeping, TCC/PCC should read and reflect the changes required from the UN into their deployment policy.

Conclusion: Korea should do its commitment pledged to the UN to contribute to successful peacekeeping operations. First, Korea shall contemplate its deployment policy, focusing on how and what it can implement A4P+ within a limited period. Second, Korea needs to re-consider the current participation of military and equipment. Qualitative expansion in Korea’s participation rather than quantitative one should be prioritized first.

[Keywords] Action for Peacekeeping Plus(A4P+), Peacekeeping Operations(PKO), UN Security Council, Multilateralism, TCC/PCC(Troop Contributing Country/Police Contributing Country)


[1] Montejo B & Stefanovic B. The Implementation of the Action for Peacekeeping in Context: A Concrete Analysis of Efforts by the Security Council at Sequencing and Prioritizing Mandates. Journal of International Peacekeeping, 24(1/2), 223-251 (2020).
[2] Howard LM. Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and UN Reform. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 16(2), 6-13 (2015).
[3] Gonzalo G & Park S & Cho H. Prospects for New Wars in the 21st Century. International Journal of Military Affairs, 6(3), 43-53 (2021). [Article]
[4] Cho ST. Nations, Nationalism and Terrorism. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 1(1), 11-15 (2016). [Article]
[5] Hong SP. A Study on the Influence Factors of Suicide Terrorism. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 6(2), 26-41 (2021). [Article]
[6] Gray C. Peacekeeping and Enforcement Action in Africa: The Role of Europe and the Obligations of Multilateralism. Review of International Studies, 31, 207-223 (2005).
[7] Yun J & Bae I. A Review of the International Order and Human Security in the Era of Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 6(4), 28-35 (2021). [Article]
[8] Tieku TK. Multilateralization of Democracy Promotion and Defense in Africa. Africa Today, 56(2), 74-91 (2009).
[9] Kirby M. Multilateralism, Pushback and Adjustment: From the UN Charter to Covid-19. Maryland Journal of International Law, 35(1), 22-60 (2020).
[10] Cho H & Park S & Im Y. Human Security Task and Prospect on Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Terrorism & National Security, 5(2), 48-55 (2020). [Article]
[12] Kim GR & Lee KK & Seol HJ. A Study on the United Nations’ Action for Peacekeeping(A4P) and the Development Direction of South Korean Military Peace Operations. Journal of Convergence Security, 21(5), 155-165 (2021).
[13] Lesia D & Olha L. The UN Security Council Permanent Members’ Veto Right Reform in the Context of Conflict in Ukraine. Central European Journal of International & Security Studies, 12(2), 157-185 (2018).
[14] Morrison A & Kiras J & Blair SA. UN Peacekeeping Reform: Something Permanent and Stronger. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 3(1), 95-110 (1996).
[15] Yilmaz ME. UN Peacekeeping in the Post-cold War Era. International Journal on World Peace, 22(2), 13-28 (2005).
[20] Jee HK. A Study on the Development Plan of Korea’s Overseas Dispatch in the Era of Comprehensive Security. The Quarterly Journal of Defense Policy Studies, 37(2), 7-36 (2021).

[11] UN official report. Restructuring of the United Nations Peace and Security Pillar Report of the Secretary-general(A/72/525) (2017).
[16] (2021).
[17] UN. Action for Peacekeeping+ plan (2021).
[18] A4P+ Priorities for 2021-2023 (2021).
[19] UNDPO. Current and Emerging Uniformed Capability Requirement for UN Peacekeeping (2019).

? Source: